понеділок, 10 грудня 2007 р.

Швачко С.О.








Конспект лекцій
з курсу

_______________________________________________

ПРОБЛЕМИ СИНХРОННОГО ПЕРЕКЛАДУ
_______________________________________________














Суми Видавництво СумДУ 2002


МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ
СУМСЬКИЙ ДЕРЖАВНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ


С.О. ШВАЧКО


Конспект лекцій
з курсу

«ПРОБЛЕМИ СИНХРОННОГО ПЕРЕКЛАДУ»

для студентів спеціальності 7.030507
денної форми навчання






Затверджено
на засіданні кафедри перекладу
як конспект лекцій з дисциплини
“Проблеми синхронного перекладу”
протокол № ___ від _______ 200__ р.






Cуми СумДУ 2002




CONTENTS

LECTURE I Introduction

1. Types of Interpretation

2. Challenges of Interpreting

3. Assignments

LECTURE II Qualities and Qualifications of Interpreters

1. Interpreter’s Skills

2. Interpreter as he is

3. Assignments

LECTURE III Some Basic Distinctive Features of Simultaneous Interpreting

1. Status of Simultaneous Interpreting

2. Interpreting Practices in Evolution

3. Interpreter’s Notation

4. Assignments

LECTURE IV Interpreting Training in Exercises

1. Interdisciplinary Nature of Simultaneous Interpreting

2. Major Types of Exercises

3. Speech Comprehension Methods

4. Assignments

LECTURE V Some Practical Aspects of SI Activities

1. Phonetic Prognosis

2. Typical Lexical Combinations

3. Syntactical Structure Peculiarities

4. The Importance of Background Knowledge

5. Assignments

LECTURE VI Practical Exercises on Developing SI Skills

1. Getting the Feel of the Booth

2. Speaking into the Microphone

3. Listening Comprehension

4. Repeating the Source Text

5. Repeating the Source Text with a Given Gap

6. Listening to the Source Text and Delivering Another Speech Simultaneously

7. Consolidation of Lexical and Syntactical Equivalents

8. Speech Comprehension Exercises

9. At-sight Translation

10. Assignments

LECTURE VII Interlinguistic and Intercultural Aspects of Interpretation

1. Interlinguistic aspects of Interpretation

2. Intercultural Aspects of Interpretation

3. Assignments

LECTURE VIII Additional Information on Interpreting

1. Roots of Interpreting

2. From Skill to Profession

3. Rules and Standards

4. Personal Qualities

5. Schools of Interpreting

6. Specialization

7. Types of Consecutive Interpreting

8. CI Subvarieties

9. Assignments

LECTURE IX Translation and Discussion

1. Prototypical Equivalence in English - Ukrainian Translation

2. Substandard English in Translation

3. Students’ Talks on Translation

List of Some Confusing Words

Bibliography









LECTURE I Introduction

The notion “перевести” is volumous and polyfunctional.
Cf. to transfer into another place
to put a clock on/back
to take across the road
to remit money
to switch a train
to convert into the metric system
to take a breath
to translate from to
Translation is centuries old. It goes back to the ancient times. The term “translation” isn’t a simplistic one. It works for oral and written translation of different texts.
There are common and different features between written and oral translations. There is the great tendency to use the term “interpretation” for the oral translation. The term “interpretation” is being widely discussed by scientists. Roberts (1997) and Gentile (1993, 1997) don’t see distinctions among different types of interpreting. Gentile, in particular, advocates eliminating the adjectives and simply talking on interpreting. Garber (1998), on the other hand, points out that there are some profound differences between types of interpreting, and labels are helpful for distinguishing them. Garber (1998) contends that the labels alleviate confusion, give interpretation some practical meaning.
It is widely recognised that the interpreting is becoming an increasingly common activity, it is an essential part of human interaction at all levels. More and more people are employed as interpreters in government and public agencies, non-governmental organisations, private industry. The demand for interpreters far exceeds the supply. But interpreters are almost unanimous in complaining that they are underpaid, undertrained and underappreciated, that their pay and working conditions deteriorate.
The lay public has certain misconceptions about the interpretation, such as:
- conference interpreters perform simultaneous interpretation;
- only court interpreters are concerned with ethical considerations such as confidentiality and impartiality;
- community interpreters are always amateurs with limited formal education;
- conference interpreters always interpret for trained public speakers, they always get the speeches in advance with plenty of time to prepare;
- only community interpreters deal with cultural differences.
Classification of different types of interpretation should dispel these and other misconceptions.
The literature about interpreting describes their activity in simple terms.
Cf. “The interpreter has first to listen to the speaker, understand and analyse what is being said, and then resynthesize the speech in the appropriate form in a different language…” (Jones, 1996: 6) Interpreting in its subcategories focus on the mode of delivery, the subject matter of the interpreted event. In the hierarchy that prevails at present interpreters are placed in their differentiation at the pinnacle or at the “bottom of the heap”.

1.1 Types of interpretation

Simultaneous interpreting suggests providing the target-language message at roughly the same time as the source-language message is being produced. In simultaneous interpretation the interpreter is isolated in a booth. He speaks at the same time as the speaker and therefore has no need to memorise or jot down what is said. The process of analysis-comprehension and that of reconstruction-expression are telescoped. The interpreter works on the message bit by bit, giving the portion he has understood while analysing and assimilating the next text (Seleskovich, 1978: 125).
In consecutive interpreting the interpreter waits until the speaker has finished before beginning the interpretation. The interpreter does not begin speaking until the original speaker has stopped. He has time to analyse the message as a whole, which makes it easier for him to understand its meaning. He speaks to his listeners face to face and therefore he actually becomes the speaker (Seleskovich, 1978: 123).
There functions whispered interpretation (so called chuchotage) in case when equipment for simultaneous interpretation is not available. One participant speaks and simultaneously an interpreter whispers into the ear of the one or maximum two people who require interpreting service (Jones, 1998: 6).
Conference interpreting is equated with simultaneous interpreting these days (Jones, 1998), though interpreters must be prepared to perform in the consecutive mode as well.
Conference interpreting enables the participants to communicate with each other in a seamless fashion, making the language barrier almost imperceptible.
Seminar interpreting takes place in meeting and small conferences (Gonzales, 1991: 28). The basic difference between conference interpreting and seminar interpreting is the size of the meeting.
Escort interpreting refers to the services provided for government officials, business executives, investors, observers, and the like who are conducting on-site visits. This interpretation is marked by the spontaneity and the broad spectrum of situations interpreters may find themselves in (formal meetings, tours of factories, cocktail parties). The mode in consecutive, limited almost to a few sentences at a time (Gonzales, 1991: 28).
Media interpreting in performed at press conferences, publicity appearances / interviews / films / videos / TV / radio conferences.
Court interpreting refers to services provided in courts of law, legal cases of any sort (Gonzales, 1991).
Business (commercial or trade) interpreting refers to business people discussing business matters (welfare / medical / legal rubric) through an interpreter. Interpreting settings range from arts, sports, tourism, recreation to parents negotiations or government to government meetings of delegations (Gentile, 1996: 116). Business interpreting may entail either consecutive or simultaneous interpreting. Sign-language interpreters are called upon to interpret with increasing frequency in commercial settings (Frishberg, 1986).
Medical interpreting (alternation terms are health, health care interpreting, hospital interpreting) encompasses a variety of situations.
Cf. routine consultation with a physician, emergency procedures, prepared childbirth classes, support for complex laboratory testing, industrial injury claims, personal injury lawsuits.
Education interpreting is a rapidly growing field of specialization (Frishberg, 1986). Either consecutive or simultaneous interpreting may be required in the classroom for students who cannot understand the language of instruction, between teachers and parents at school board meetings and disciplinary hearings.
Over-the-Phone interpreting (OPI) or remote interpreting refers to services provided over telephonic links (video links included). OPI is mostly done consecutively, in telecommunications technology simultaneous interpretation is more prevalent (Mintz, 1998).
Community interpreting enables people who are not fluent speakers of the official language (s) of the country to communicate with the providers of public services so as to facilitate full or equal access to legal, health, education, government and social services (Carr et al, 1997). There is little consensus about the definition of quasi-synonymous terms (liaison, ad hoc, three-cornered, dialogue, contact, public service, cultural interpreting).
Community interpreting is considered as an umbrelle including both court and medical interpreting and community interpreters are considered as amateurs and well-meaning but misguided as “do-gooders” (Gonzales et al, 1991: 29).
Gentile expresses a preference for liaison interpreting, it better describes the process. The term “community interpreting” has an adverse effect on the profession, it perpetuates the “Cinderella image” (Gentile, 1997: 117-118). Nevertheless the term “community interpreting” is steadily pushing aside the other terms in world-wide usage.

1.2 Challenges of Interpreting

With interpretation for politicians you have to be very certain of your technical language, whether it is political or economic, of the correct diplomatic terms. So the first consideration was, if one has to interpret let alone for Gorbachev or for other members of his delegation, that he was fully aware of the necessary vocabulary. And the conditions in which you interpret are not always very easy. You have to change very rapidly from simultaneous interpretation in a booth, with earphones and microphone that is immovable in front of you, to consecutive interpretation, where any good interpreter will always have a little notebook and will make short notes, because again not a single part of what is said can either be paraphrased; it’s got to be very exactly interpreted and all the terms have to be there…intact.
Language of course is the bearer and the expression of a culture, and a culture means a certain cast of mind, certain attitudes, certain understandings of given values and all of that has to be conveyed in interpretation. And in that sense it is very good to have the opportunity of interpreting, not only in the political field with its very technical demands but also in the cultural field.
There are a number of words which are easily translatable but which may have acquired or always have had rather different connotations. One example is when we talk of democracy we talk of democracy in terms of a long history of democratic institutions and a respect for the law that supports that democracy. This is a new experience for Russia. And there for the word democracy has connotations associated with the historical development of the last 5 or 6 years.
Another word that is always tricky is the word compromise. Now, when we talk of a compromise, we talk, actually, of a positive give-and-take, whereas compromise in Russian is an extraordinary difficult word to translate, because the concept tends to go more in the direction of compromise where this is the best that can be done, but is far from ideal, rather than a process of give-and-take.
Interpreters will always be necessary. However much the knowledge of English improves among an ever greater number of people, there are still certainly going to be areas where interpretation is going to be necessary. Perhaps some of the particular situations in which interpreting is essential, may grow, may change, may shift somewhat. But both in the political and in the commercial field and probably to a large extend for some time yet in the cultural field interpreters will continue to be essential. What is desired to be seen is interpreting that is not only simply an attempt to convey the literal meaning of the words, but interpreting which will always want to convey the values and the concepts that lie behind what is being said by whichever side.

1.3 Assignments

1 What translation operation works here (addition, omission, modulation)?
• It was Friday and soon they'd go out and get a drink (I.Braine). – Була п’ятниця, день отримання зарплати, і незабаром ці люди вийдуть на вулиці і почнуть пиячити.
• For dessert you got Brown Betty which nobody ate (Salinger). - Ha десерт принесли пудинг “Рижу Бетті”, який ніхто не захотів їсти.
• There were pills all over the place and everything smelled likeVicks Nose Drops (Salinger). - І тут і там стояли краплі нежиті.
• Manson slung his bag up and climbed into a battered gig behind a tall, angular black horse (Cronin).- Мейсон поставив свою валізу і вліз у розхитаний віз, у який був запряжений величезний кістлявий кінь.
2 Enlarge on the efficiency of an interpreter using these units:
• SL knowledge,
• TL knowledge.
• Contrastive knowledge.
• Text-type knowledge.
• Genre knowledge.
• Bilinguist.
• Specialist.
• Diplomat.
3 Enlarge the list of "false friends" units. Comment on this phenomenon in terms of translation.
Magazine "журнал", decade "десятиріччя", conductor "диригент", "провідник", replica "копія", data "дані", decoration "нагорода", matrass "колба", spectre "привід", prospect "перспектива", challenge "завдання", habitant "мешканець", philosophy "принцип", complexion "колір (обличчя)", lunatic "божевільний", accurate "точний", aspirant "пошукач", pattern "закономірність", routine "peryлярний", marginal “нерента-бельний”, history “розвиток”.

4 Identity cases of transcription, transliteration, generalization and concretization in terms of translation.
1 The British people are still profoundly divided on the issue of pointing Europe. – “У англійців досі існують глибокі розбіжності відносно вступу Англії у Спільний ринок”.
2 The temperature was uneasy 50 . – Було нестерпно гаряче.
3 Firth of Clyde – Ферт ов Слайд (затока).
4 Beatles – “Бітлз”
5 I packed two Gladstone. – “Я спакував дві валізи”.














LECTURE II Qualities and Qualifications of Interpreters

There is a great deal of literature dealing with the description of the ideal interpreter. The following qualities are identified as essential for good interpreting.

2.1 Interpreter’s Skills

Language skills. Even laypersons recognise that interpreters need to have a good command of their working languages to interpret accurately, though they underestimate the extent of that command, the depth of linguistic proficiency.
The scientists (Seleskovich, 1978; Jones, 1998; Gonzales et al, 1991; Frishberg, 1986; Gentile et al, 1996) are unanimous in making the point that language is just a prerequisite for mastering the techniques of interpreting. Analytical skills. Jones (1998) stresses how important it is to analyse a speech before interpreting it. The standards of practice prove that analysis is a key element in interpreting proficiency. Analysis is an intrinsic part of the interpreting process, rather than an ancillary tactic (Gonzales et al, 1991: 363).
Listening and recall. In interpretation memory, understanding are inseparable, the one is a function of the other (Seleskovich, 1978: 34). An interpreter must retain and include in the target language message, even paralinguistic elements (Gonzales et al, 1991: 384). Effective interpreting requires effective listening skills and memory (or recall) into that.
Interpersonal skills. A heavy emphasis is put on the interpersonal skills of interpreters, the mode of direct personal contacts with their clients, delegates of conference, businessmen, people from all walks of life ranging from factory workers to housewives / farmers / refugees… Conference interpreters are encouraged to develop these skills unlike interpreters sitting in their booths addressing faceless bureaucrats in a disembodied voice.
Ethical behaviour code has the greatest impact on the interpreter’s work in legal settings. Ethics are a major consideration for all interpreters (Frishberg, 1996; Sussman and Johnson, 1996; Jones, 1998). Interpreters should understand their role and exercise. Good judgement attune to the importance of interpreted issues.
Speaking skills. The public speaking is indeed a key component in the training of all types of interpreters (Weber, 1984; Frishberg, 1986; Gentile, 1996; Gonzales et al, 1991). Effective speaking skills range from quality of voice to choice of idiom, vocabulary, phrasing. What comes out of the mouth of the interpreter and the way it comes out are very important in the overall effectiveness of the interpretation.
Cultural knowledge is universally acknowledged. Interpreters need to be acutely aware of cultural differences. They should be both linguistic and cultural intermediaries (Seleskovich, Lederer, 1984). In all of their work interpreters should bridge the cultural and conceptual gaps separating the participants in a meeting (Jones, 1998).
Subject knowledge is badly needed to interpret accurately. Some understanding of the subjects presupposes an adequate discussion, let alone interpretation. All experts on interpreting recognize the need of proper technical terminology and content knowledge in relevant fields.
All interpreters must demonstrate the qualities listed above, regardless of where and for whom they interpret.
Interpreters must undergo extensive training and demonstrate a high level of skills to be able to work efficiently.
Qualifications and qualities of a good interpreter are obvious. It is not advisable to embark upon his career without having a good university education or its equivalent. A knowledge of languages and technical subjects come to the forefront. The variety of subjects to speak upon is phantastic. Say, atomic energy, legal issues, statistics, finance, demographic problems, measurements, lighting of coasts. This envisages both extensive knowledge and mental readjustment. An interpreter is on the alert to obtain a quick mental grasp of what is being said and to get it across in another language. An interpreter, like an actor, is supposed to speak in public without any trace of stage fright or even shyness. Bashfulness won’t do. Discretion is another necessary quality of an interpreter. The latter is not only supposed to speak freely but also to be able to grasp a meaning with lightning speed, psychological understanding and a great presence of mind. He is to overcome obscure things, to remedy non-standard wording and clarify situations. A point of honour on the part of an interpreter is not to ask for help, he is not to be reluctant to make the translation clearer than the original.
Interpretation should be pleasant and easy to listen to. Highly relevant are public speaking skills. An interpreter should possess the ability to communicate well i.e. to transmit the message desired in a way that will be received and understood by the listeners. Visual communication is welcome too. Presentation is a widely-sought-after skill. It is not so much what you say as how you say it. Presentation is made enjoyable in case an interpreter is aware of audience and procedure itself. An interpreter shouldn’t violate the tradition. He is to: - tell what you’re going to tell’em
- tell’em
- tell’em what you told’em.
Examples, figures, stories make hard facts soft. Humour is to be in good taste and relevant. See to it not to spoil the flavour of good translation with many details. Short words and phrases make audience comfortable with at that. Jargon isn’t advisable. Rehearsal practice erases weak points and gaps. One should pronounce figures and names correctly and confidently.
Here are some profitips to effectively deliver presentation:
- Do not fall into the trap of speaking too quickly because you are nervous.
- Prepare your talk well. You will be less nervous and more confident.
- Rapport is actual as far as the relationship between you and your audience is concerned.
- Avoid any distracting mannerism like pacing, rocking back and forth on your feet. Don’t forget that openhandedness conveys sincerity.
- Consider volume, tone and pace.
The sound of your voice must be loud enough to be heard by everyone and fast enough to keep the audience interested but not too fast for them to follow. If what the audience hears differs from the words that are used, the audience will believe the sounds.
Developing effective presentation skills is the most rewarding. This will go a long way to further your career.
Here are some other tips:
- Record yourself talking; don’t despair if you dislike what you hear.
- Practice breathing by panting like a puppy.
- Slow down a machine-gun speaking patterns pausing on vowels, trying to visualize them as a river of sounds channeled by consonants.
- Wear inoffensive clothing.
- Try to see the podium beforehand.
- You must know everything about the subject – at least as much as your audience does.
- You should believe in what you are saying with your mind and heart.

2.2 Interpreter as he is

Translation is a human activity known since ancient times and an interpreter or a translator is among the oldest professions dating back to the biblical era and earlier.
We know about translation as much or as little as our ancestors. By tradition it has been outside the mainstream of linguistic science and philosophy. But it would be wrong to say that research of translation was scarce or the results were futile. There are still vast black areas in translation theory and practice to be addressed by linguists, interpreters and translators.
They say: Translation is an art, interpreting is a craft. Craftsmanship is of an old make.
In the armies of Alexander the Great and King Darius of Persia interpreters were distinguished by badges with the logo of a parrot. In the 4-th century B.C., almost 2400 years ago, translation was a profession rather than just an occupation or a hobby. But it happened so that until the late nineteen fifties translation had not been much in the focus of scholar’s attention. There work some reasons:
The abundance of an easily available and relatively cheap workforce to do the job at an acceptable low quality level.
Relatively low quality of translation was generally satisfactory for the existing market. Until the introduction of computers and market globalisation the flows of multilingual information in the world had been rather fragmented.
Finally, translation is one of the most complex problems that the human intellect may face (G.Miram, !998:10).
Everybody is aware that he hesitates a great number of times when facing the necessity of choice (choosing profession, fiance, working place, residence, friends etc.). The opulence of existing opportunities for young resolute people makes the choice of future profession, on the one hand, easier because everyone can find something to his taste, but, on the other hand , far more difficult due to excess of possible answer for the question “What am I going to be?”
Nowadays there exists a number of professions considered as popular and fashionable (lawyer, economist, advertising agent etc.); the profession of an interpreter is among them.
It’s well known that translation or interpretation is a specific kind of human activity, which consists in providing the interlocutors, speaking different languages, with mutual understanding.
The work of an interpreter is very interesting and, to some extend, unpredictable. You can never know why the forthcoming moment will bring and what surprises it may contain. Such surprises are everywhere, where interpretation reigns. Communication is always new, fresh, mostly made on on the go.
One should point out that the work of an interpreter is linked with hard and strenuous work, concentration, great efforts, a continuous mastering or foreign languages, constant creativity, and permanent training of memory. Though the job is rather strenuous, it is profitable as well. To the advantages one may refer meeting interesting people from different countries, gaining experience and the like.
What should an interpreter be like? An interpreter is a person who must always be on the alert. He must have good manners and a ready tongue. Besides, clothes make a man. It is necessary to look smart, otherwise there may be less mutual understanding (especially at some official meetings or conferences). In short, an interpreter should be up to the mark.
There exist opinions that an interpreter is a gobetweener or even some kind of a machine that has to provide proper communication between two or more people of different language communities. Without an interpreter the speech act would not take place and the desirable effect wouldn’t be achieved. He is the main link of the chain, although many people underestimate it.
It is typical of an interpreter to be involved in a conversation adding some information only in cases when the meeting is regarded as personal and unofficial. It is unthinkable to get oneself involved in a conversation between the leaders of the states.
To become a really good interpreter requires much practice, willingness to achieve some goal and last, but not the least, love of foreign languages and cultures.

2.3 Assignments

1 Use these units in your talk on interpreting and interpreters:
microphones
earphones
sound-recording
craftsmanship
of an old make
missionaries
envoy
carrier
intermediaters
delicate talks
advisors
a means of communication
a language of diplomats
global communication
a booth
double burden
to relay
two-way translation
to switch on/off
to drown voice
to hammer smb’s energy
agenda
sharpened pencil
thesaurus of working vocabulary
life-belt, ring buoy
awaken the auditorium
check against delivery
amendments
modifications on the go
Van Doren erudite
irreparable situation
watchfulness, vigilance
to go mad
script/version of a text
confused, inconsistent speech
‘centipede’
Jack of all trades
a burst of gun
unexperienced observer
conference facilities, communication aids
a blunder (a rough mistake)
theory of chances, probability
diagnosis, prognosis
efficiency
competence
tragic results, aftereffects
nonsense, chaos, absurdity
strong power
expert
connoisseur
vagaries, whims, queer things
eternal briefing of a life
confidence and trust of the public
adherents of the theory, advocates

2 Enlarge on the terms:
-adequate translation;
-consecutive translation;
-descriptive translation;
-synchronous translation;
-rough translation;
-transliteration;
-sight translation.
3 Is antonymic translation
-affirmative or negative in sense structure?
Cf.: -take you time - "не спіши";
-keep your head - "не падай духом”
4 Define descriptive translation using the given list:
-the shift of levels in ST and TT;
-explicit structures differ;
-the meaning stays;
Cf.: - come what may - "що буде, те буде";
- mad as a hatter" "цілком божевільний";










LECTURE III Some Basic Distinctive Features of Simultaneous Interpreting (SI)

3.1 Status of SI

Simultaneous interpreting is distinguished among the other translation activities by its structure, speed of translation actions delivery, and by the type of linguistic transformations of lexical and grammatical organization of utterances during the translation process.
The most important distinctive feature of the structure of SI lies in parallel management of listening to a speech in one language while making translation choices and speaking in another language. Under the conditions of SI these processes are defined as orientation in a source text, searching and making translation choices and their realization.
Coordination of these processes is reached by various means pending on proficiency of an interpreter and particular conditions such as speech rate of a speaker, complexity degree of a source text, and some other factors.
SI executed by an amateur interpreter is managed due to the mechanism of perceiving original speech and producing the interpretation in target language in turns. Consciousness of the interpreter switches or is periodically redirected from perceiving the original speech to searching and making translation choices, and to delivering the speech in the target language. But this mechanism is not efficient when the speech rate is high, it results in omitting some significant parts of translation due to inability of the interpreter to concentrate on the source text while searching and making translation choices.
On the other hand, a professional interpreter manages all three processes to flow simultaneously. One of the basic mechanisms of such coordination is the mechanism of synchronization.
This is a hierarchically organized mechanism of regulation which ensures parallel and simultaneous flow of the three processes. This mechanism regulates distribution of the levels of consciousness (from actual consciousness to sub-conscious control) between the components of translation activity. The leading level of consciousness is directed to the creativity-tied components, such as information processing, comparison and analyzing which defines another important step of making a translation choice out of other possible options. The mechanism of synchronization operates if a number of various speech pattern skills function on the sub-conscious level.
The mechanism of synchronization puts some limitations on the processes of interpretation activity:
orientation in a source text is based on discrete perceiving of speech. Selected words perceived by an interpreter constitute a message resembling a telegram. In a scale of one word, discrete perceiving is expressed in comprehension of several syllables creating a phonetic outline of this word;
searching and making translation choices are based on using the "home storage of the interpreter". Broad background knowledge and experience reduce to minimum those cases when creativity is needed for searching the options and making translation choices. This is brought to a reflective reaction of using lexical, phraseological and syntactical equivalents.
Successful functioning of the mechanism of synchronization depends greatly on deep orientation of the interpreter in the situation of communication, and thus, making the prognosis of the object, subject, contents and form of the utterance; predisposing to making translation choices and constant developing and amplifying the prognosis made in the processes of interpreting.
Another specific feature of structure of the interpreter activity is a smaller range of translational activities. In SI translational activities are carried out upon intonational and semantical units such as syntagmas and rhythmical groups, syntactical blocks and other parts of utterances, while in other types of translation it is separate phrases and extra-phrase unites that are disposed to such activities. It means that skills and experience gained in some other types of translation, i.e. written translation or consecutive interpreting, are not sufficient for simultaneous interpreting - and the interpreter must be familiar with special techniques used in SI particularly.
Temporal characteristics of SI are the most essential in this type of translation. SI is the quickest type of translation: the source text is translated with the same speed it is pronounced by the speaker. Temporal characteristics are implied differently to the processes of interpreting [17, 143].
Orientation in the source-text is affected by this time deficit more than other processes of SI - extracting information, its syntactical organization and lexical-phraseological filling is a complex process. Searching and making translation choices is also characterized by time deficit. Almost every other second the interpreter is defining or amplifying syntactical structure of the utterance in the target language and its particular lexical filling.
Delivering the translation choices is not affected greatly by time factor. The main difficulties are connected with the necessity of combining this process with another two processes of SI.
There are two aspects concerning lexical and grammatical transformations of the speaker's utterances in SI.
First of all, the need to translate the speech by segments, smaller than a phrase, makes an interpreter decide on syntactical structure of utterance on the basis of orientation in its first components. That is the reason why the syntactical structure of the text in the target language in SI differs in the degree of similarity to the source-text syntactical structure from that one of the same text translated under the other circumstances.
Then, the necessity to combine the processes of orientation in the source-text, searching and making translation choices and delivering the translation choices in the target language together with the need of keeping the usual speech rate in the target language prompt the interpreter to compress the source-text due to the informational excess in the original speech. Both aspects - the specific syntactical structure transformation and compression of the text in the target language - are subject for developing corresponding professional skills of an interpreter.
The point of mastering the SI skills does not lie in learning the techniques of the processes adduced above but in combining them all in one activity. It is due to this combination of parallel-flowing processes of orientation in the source-text, searching and making translation choices and delivering the translation choices in the target language accompanied by time oppression and the necessity to compress the text in the target language while making specific transformations SI is considered very complex, intense, and fatiguing.
The process of mastering SI comprises the development of orientation in the source-text skills, as well as searching and making translation choices and delivering the translation choices skills under the conditions of the parallel flow; creating the mechanism of synchronization, which distributes the attention of the interpreter between the components of his activity; development of skills of high-speed delivery of translation actions as well as learning the techniques of speech compression and various linguistic transformations.

3.2 Interpreting Practices in Evolution

Until 1914 only the professional diplomats were entrusted with international negotiations. With the emergence of a number of permanent international bodies official diplomatic interpreters came to be in high demand. Then no one had any special training for this work. Those were hard times for synchronous translation with its various aspects, problems and requirements. Consecutive interpreting preceded it. In this case the interpreter listens to a speech and takes notes as it goes on. Notes made by a listener i.e. an interpreter are supposed to be as scanty as possible to enable the interpreter to reconstruct the sequence of arguments and to keep the dominant words for rendering the colouring of the speech. A good interpreter is never expected to ask the orator to stop to enable the interpreter to render information bit by bit.
It’s a tremendous effort on the part of an interpreter to render a speech of an orator after, say, half-an-hour talk. Interpretations are usually shorter than original speeches. Especially exhausting is the work connected with tense international situations. Stormy atmosphere is keenly felt by interpreters for their part is very important.
An interpreter is aware of the fact that every single word is fraught with significance and is closely watched by parties, so that any slip, or even weakness, of the interpreter may have the most serious consequences. An interpreter is short of time to jot down his notations – taking down shorthand and reading it back. Ha can give an intelligent rendering of a speech provided he is reasoning the sequence of arguments from the start to the conclusion. An interpreter may be asked by the Chairman to summarize the speech into that.

3.3 Interpreter’s Notation

Interpreter’s Notation (IN) helps much to keep fresh precision units, say, numerals, proper names, titles. IN are more connected with thoughts, assertions than with words. There are logic, traditional symbols of IN, for example:
: - tell, inform, remark, admit, assert;
OK – approve, support, agree;
in future - ↑
in past - ↓
doubt - ?
intensification - !
plurality – N2
repetition – R
more - >
less - <
duty – d
necessity – n
thousand – t
million – m
billiard – b
trillion – tr
conference, congress, meeting - ¤
conflict, war – x
to resign – r ↓
deployment - È
Uncommon symbols are individual, made on the go.
Precision information lets synchronous translation go. Precision information is materialized in written translation and presents no difficulties for transformation into target language while in synchronous translation this precision information should be reduced through the symbols of Interpreter’s notations, so indispensable for this process.
In contrast to precision information basic information is relevant to the background knowledge of an interpreter individually.
Interpreter’s notes as a system are not a metalinguistic invention, that is to say that they are not an artificial language or code invented by someone to make the interpreter’s life easier and the student’s life harder. It is a system of taking down oral speech which evolved (developed) spontaneously from among those conference interpreters who were engaged in practical work in the period between the two World Wars and immediately after World War II.
A System Evolves
Professors at the Geneva School, after having reviewed their own as well as their collegues’ writing pads, which had been collected for this purpose, came to the conclusion, that although each interpreter had his or her own manner of writing, there was something common to all the notes reviewed. This indicated the needs for further analysis, and the finding was that all the interpreters assumed similar tactics in their notes. In fact it tuned out, that all interpreters, no matter how different their manner of writing stuck to a certain system in their notes, and this system was coming through despite the differences.
In those times nobody bothered to undertake serious research of such a throw-away thing as an old interpreter’s writing pad. True enough, research was premature, psycholinguistics was not yet born and the theory of translation, which was in its early childhood, was preoccupied with comparing texts.
However, the necessity to teach their students how to take notes, compelled (made) the two writers mentioned above to see and recognize a system in the puzzling, hastily scribbled notes in interpreters’ writing pads and introduce it in class. The reason was obvious – qualified interpreters were in growing demand, and the standard was stringent (strict, tough): the interpreter had no right to interrupt the speaker while he communicated his statement to the reader.
The Medium (Interpeter) and the Message
So it is quite clear that practical needs rather than a theoretical interest brought the system to light. Today, however, we are not only practically, but also theoretically well equipped to look into the system more closely.
Discussions of the process of speech perception lead to the conclusion that the model of conference in the interpreter’s writing pad carries a transcript of conceptual representation of the message utterance by utterance.
The rules of making such a transcript reflect semantic relations within utterances and between them. The syntax of interptreter’s notes is adapted to express deep semantic relations rather than formal relations of surface structures.
Language and Thought
The system of note-taking tends to eliminate the difference between language and thought which results in reducing the infinite variety of sentences of human speech to a simple three-member logical proposition: the subject – the predicate – the object. Since the interpreter’s notes are devoid of all grammatical forms the members of the proposition acquire fixed positions on the pages of the interpreter’s writing pad with each member having a line to itself and with the three lines shifted to the left.
(I) Subject
(II) Predicate
(III) Object
If the third member is missing, the line remains unfilled.
All extenders to the corresponding elements on the surface structure assume the status of attributes and their positions are also fixed – to the right of the member and a little above the line:
/attr/
(I) Subject
/attr/
(II) Predicate
/attr/
(III) Object
Helpful Order
This present order of positioning the members of the Source language logical proposition permits the interpreter to depart from the surface structure of the SL, and also to start taking down the utterance as soon as the nature of the segment he receives has been identified or if the utterance begins with adverbial modifiers the interpreter identifies them as a predicative tribute, forecasts the sentence structure and puts down a word/symbol of these modifiers in the centre of the page just above the place where the predicate should be.
This example demonstrates that the stages of sound speech analysis take place simultaneously, that the process of analysis is continuous and indivisable, and that both structural and semantic forecasting is instrumental for the interpreter.
It should also be mentioned that the figures of the three-member proposition are treated in a broad sense: the action and the state come within one category, as well as the object, the addresses and the purpose of the action.
Break away from Surface Structure
The interpreter’s notes as well as human thought do not need grammatical tenses, but the category of time relation is necessary for both. Therefore, the interpreter utilizes special symbols to mark the time. The actual symbols vary, but the marking is always there just preceding the figure (symbol) of the action.
Since complex syntactical structures of the surface can be reduced to simple ones, compound and complex sentences are brought down to a set of simple propositions, so the interpreter breaks away from the surface structure of the SL, marking in his notes the semantic links between parts of a complex sentence, or a larger unit of speech.
Semantic Code
Each interpreter makes a broad use of graphical symbols to substitute words and whole notions, which again reverts us to the internal semantic code with which we operate while receiving a message in a natural language and processing it for our own understanding. The internal semantic code goes alongside with word-based, image-based, and symbol-based. What we see in the interpreter’s notes are contracted words (vowels are redundant in polysyllabic words) which are often used to substitute whole notions or concepts, symbols, which, too, represent in a most expressive way notions and concepts. Those words and symbols are chosen in such a way as to represent a most semantically charged element in the segment of the utterance being recorded and this indicates that the interpreter excludes language and speech redundancy from his notes.
The interpreter does a lot of “forecasting” in the process of his work; he or she predicts the sentence structure and the sense of the utterance just to be able to put it down in time before the speaker passes on the next one.
So what the interpreter arrives at as a result of his note-taking is the semantic programme for the message in the TL, recorded utterance by utterance. The model of the interpretation process shows that the notes actually contain all the stages of the process except the last two ones: syntactical and morphophonemic structuring.

3.4 Assignments

1 Some units to let the topic go:
- I should possess a strong concentration power.
- My dress will be both smart and inconspicuous/
- I’d be an invisible person, a voice through earphones, an unnamed third person.
- My top skills are sure to be mastery of two languages, concentration and stamina.
- To work as a staff interpreter until I become a head of interpreting office.
- I’m reluctant to be in the centre (focus) of attention i.e. in the time light, that is to steal the snow or to be star-struck.
- I wish my speakers would not veer away from the texts to be interpreted.
- To be good at what I do and not to be noticed by listeners / speakers.
- I’d like to switch languages with a great speed (lightning speed) and sound reason.
- I wish I were quite at ease, comfortable, lucky with what I do, I should detach my personal feelings from the job at my hand.
- I don’t mind wide range of activities at all – consulting, translating, working in television.
- I would like to see that interpreting is not only to convey the literary meaning of the words but also the values and the concepts that lie behind what is being said by whichever side.
2 How are phraseological units translated (by separate words, phrases, sayings...)?
We made a good time of – ми швидко добралися;
to put one's nose in - появлятися;
wind in the head - зaзнaйcтвo;
to see eye to eye with – погодитись з ким-небудь;
to lead by the nose – підкорити co6i;
to stretch one's legs - прогулятися;
to stew in one's own juice- розплутувати;
to put salt on smb's tail - насолити;
under one's hand - власноручно;
to run smb to earth – знайти когось;
to hang one's head - похнюпитись.
3 Make a proper succession of translation processes which are listed here at random:
• select words;
• to encode the message;
• to receive signals;
• to recognize the message;
• to decode me message;
• to retrieve the message;
• to comprehend the message;
• to transmit the ST into the TT.
4 Trace losses and increments in the following sentence.
The student is reading a book.
Студент читає книжку.
Identify the analytical and synthetical forms in these correlated sentences.
Enlarge on the cases of different level equivalence (L1:: L2 ; Str1:: Str2 ; Mean1:: Mean2)
Cf.:
1) harm :: хам
:xaM
flOM :
»M
CHp :
CHp

2) complexion::

3) book ::

4) I wonder -

Дом :: дім
комплекція

книжка

цікаво

Сыр :: сир
fraction ::

note-book

I say



фракція

зошит

послухай

S1M1 = S2M2

S1 = S2; M1 ≠ M2

S1 ≠ S2; М1 = М2;

S1M1 ≠ S2M2


5 Find the dominant word for listed ones:
complete; literal;
incomplete; unbounded;
full; interlinear;
partial; adequate;
translated; accurate;
untranslated parts; equivalent;
restricted; rigorous;
free; strict.









LECTURE IV Interpreting Training in Exercises

4.1 Interdisciplinary Nature of SI

Translation is closely interwoven with sociolinguistics, contrastive lingiustics, with conceptions of thinking and cognitive aspects. It is an interlinguistic communicaton which presupposes both language and culture encoding and decoding. Communicative intention is realized due to the actualization of major linguistic functions – denotative or referential, expressive, emotional, fatic and poetic. Semantic equivalence makes translation work, for contents are prior to the forms, meaning comes to the forefront.
One cannot be an interpreter without a certain baggage or luggage of things in terms of philology and translation. It is easier said than done. What matters here is the preparatory work in process of would be specialists training. It is common knowledge that translators are to develop a wide spectrum of skills in reading, writing, listening, speaking, recalling, fluency, grasping intentions, comprehending situations. Preparatory translation work resembles the hidden in the ocean part of an iceberg which implies the upper part – original and target texts. New forms in the training process are greatly expected nowadays to reach the quality in the matter.
The major strategies of an interpreter are bifunctional: to comprehend what has been said and to render it in another language. The realization of the illocutionary goal demands much effort on the part of an interpreter. Diverse vectors of his speech activities, vital problems of oral translation, etiquette, social niceties confront an interpreter in his polifunctionality.
Needs, intentions of a medium are interwoven to serve promotion and maintenance of harmony between people speaking different languages. The crucial task on the part of an interpreter is to meet the requirements of the listeners, to identify the message delivered first in a foreign language (original) and then in a target language. To identify means to grasp “the unity of the biological and the social, the individual and the common, the world-wide and the ethnospecific” (Shevchenko 1998:17). To bring the information to listeners an interpreter is to keep close his intentions and strategies (Grice, 1975).
It goes without saying that an interpreter’s attention is to be focused upon the original text, the situation involved, and social grounds into that. Readjustment of an interpreter swings from stages of text decoding to encoding translation. As to the components of speech model they are various: speaker, interpreter, listener, intention, situation and metacommunication - channel, code, tactics, strategies (Leech, 1983). To the forefront of the interpreter’s career come qualifications and qualities which go together to promote a great purpose. The obvious things with an interpreter are knowledge of languages and social thesaurus.
It’s common knowledge that an interpreter is supposed to have a good university education or its equivalent, and extensive knowledge of technical terms to deal with fantastic spectre of subjects ranging from atomic energy, legal issues, demographic problems, the rights of man to the tonnage measurement or lighting of coast. An interpreter is to obtain in a quick mental grasp what is being said to render it quickly into another language. Bashfulness or stage fright won't do either. He should do his work with discretion, great presence of mind and psychological understanding. His work is crowned with success in case when he lets discussion go, unobscure on his part. This is his point of honour. To communicate well for an interpreter means to transmit the message in a way that will be received and understood properly by audience. This skill is widely sought after. One should always think of the ways what and how to say it. To make listeners receptive to an interpreter’s message he is to follow the expressions:
(1) Tell what you’re going to tell’em.
(2) Tell’em.
(3) Tell’em what you have told’em.
There are some profitips which surely make an interpreter’s job go easier. An interpreter is advised to use examples, figures, stories, humour in a good taste. The “flavour” of an interpreting style maybe spoiled by too many details.
One should make his audience comfortable with short words and sentences. Figures and proper names should be pronounced correctly and confidently. Report and rapport should go together for not only information but also the way it is presented which matters much in speech activity. It is crucial that a medium is to follow the audience’s reaction to his speech and make readjustments go.
Proper presentation has always been rewarding as a genuine effort of thoughtful, careful and intensive work of an interpreter. His craftsmanship is transformed into arts in the workshop of interdisciplinary training in terms of cognitive quest in pedagogical and psychological insights, translation and literary studies, innovative culture-oriented paradigm of learning languages.

4.2 Major Types of Exercises

Interpreters aren’t born, they are trained. Special syllabusses, methodological approaches facilitate interpreters’ training. Assignments are aimed at further development of interpreting skills, enhancing erudition through exercises, texts for translation, talks on relevant topics, comments on aspects of intercultural communication, practical tips and the like. The high quality of translation derives much from the deep background knowledge of traineers, their efficiency in the interlinguistic and intercultural thesaurus. Much should be done here by contrastive analysis of original and target texts, by constant search of differences and similarities in linguo-cultural systems.
Efficiently goes the process while dealing both with aspect (A) and text categories (B). Quick solutions of challenges are naturally acquired and developed through the relevant paradigm of exercises:
(A) - match the folklore Ukrainian names with their English equivalents;
- say it in English (words and phrases);
- pick out words relevant to the topic;
- suggest suitable Ukrainian versions for cultural phenomena;
- match the units in A and B columns;
- enlarge the list of synonyms;
- give antonyms to the words, phrases;
- choose the proper words;
- pick out the words of address;
- pick out expressions, words of politeness;
- commit to memory paradigms of certain language units;
- pick out seemingly international units, comment on their meaning;
- identify cases of transcription, transliteration, generalisation, concretization in the original and target communicative units;
- how are phraseological units translated in the given sentences?
- comment on the way the international units are translated in the texts;
- trace losses and increments in following sentences (original and target);
- how are the given verbal/ nominal/ adjectival construction translated ?
- identify the denotational, situational, descriptive and communicative equivalents in the given sentences;
- pick out cases of complete, partial equivalents and translation loans.
A translator is to exercise his craftsmanship through developing skills of text comprehension, of overcoming linguistic shock and attention span. Dealing with texts as the highest communicative units translators should keep in mind major categories of textuality (specific features of a particular text) and intertextuality (typological features of any text). Prerogatives belong to the text assignments of the type:
(B) - listen to the text (small in form) and give some dominant words;
- make a summary of the text;
- put questions on the text;
- answer the questions on the text;
- make consecutive, spontaneous translations of the text;
- complete the text ;
- name major blocks of the text;
- give situations illustrating the proverbs;
- remedy the proverbs;
- make a sight translation of the text;
- identify difficulties and challenges of a source text;
- identify precision information units in a text;
- jot down a text in universal interpreter’s notation;
- analyse a text (typological aspects);
- find the cases of ambiguity in a text;
- remedy the sentences before interpreting them;
- complete proverbs with suitable units;
- make informal liaison (two way) interpreting of a dialogue;
- make formal liaison (two way) interpreting of a dialogue(interview, talk);
- make discourse interpreting of a speech (lecture, appeal, briefing, toast).
Thus, exercises and assignments make the training process as the main stream go. They widen an interpreter’s thesaurus, promote his background knowledge of grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistic and strategic categories. They facilitate an interpreter’s cognition of valid procedures concerning text encoding and decoding, relation with communicators on both sides. The involved process makes the stable cycle: Text1 (speaker) → Text2 (interpreter) → Text 3 (listener). T1 (speaker) and T3 (listener) usually represent different languages and cultures. T2 (interpreter) lets communication go. Translation text analysis is highly beneficial for the future specialists; it reveals to the traineers how the discourse works (social, linguistic, cultural factors), how the text is verbalized in it’s explicit and implicit means. Some hints may be suggested by the following list of metalanguage in terms of translation text analysis:
- the text under analysis belongs to (publicistic, newspaper, belles-lettre, official, scientific, colloquial …) style;
- the dominant words;
- they refer to …;
- they make the topic go …;
- the pragmatic foundation of the text is to be verbalized by special means of TL;
- the precision words (proper names, numerals) are rendered literally for they bear exact information, are devoid of connotation;
- one can trace here terminological units. While translating them care should be taken to what system they belong to;
- the author’s intentions should not be neglected either;
- a translator should focus his attention on the modal words, phrases, parentheses, which are relevant here;
- the structure of a text should be taken into consideration too;
- the stylistic means of SL and TL matter much at that;
- redundancy, abundance and modeling work validly while rendering inner structures from SL to TL.
An interpreter communicates comfortably with people in another culture provided he is quite at ease both with language and culture differences in T1 and T2 cycles. Interpretation is cross-cultural communication. Effectiveness of it depends much on an interpreter who sees the whole iceberg deep within the ocean just as much of culture is deep within people.
Thus, training process is volumous and multiaspected. It prepares traineers for a thorny path of bringing people with different languages and cultures together. Language is the bearer and the expression of a culture, and a culture means a certain cast of mind, certain attitudes, certain understandings of values, and all of that has to be adequately conveyed through interpretation. Interpreting is not only simply an attempt to convey the literal meaning of the words but also to convey the values and the concepts that lie behind what is being said by whichever side.

4.3 Speech compression methods

When comparing translations of the same text achieved by SI and written translation, the case of reduction of the number of syllables can easily be revealed. This is done, however, without violations towards the communication tasks. The divergences between the texts of written translation and SI can be differentiated into two big groups:
- the divergences resulting from full extraction of separate information units. Syllable compression of this type has made 76%
- the divergences resulting from synonymous replacement of a sentence or a phrase by a shorter sentence, word combination, or a word. Syllable compression of this group has made 22%
There are some particular methods of compression. The methods below correspond to the first group of divergences.
1. Extracting the segments of the text which are compensated by extra-linguistic situation of communication. (The example follows: the source text - written translation - simultaneous interpretation with compression.):
I attended all previous meetings of the International Conference on Peace and Disarmament. - Я був присутнім на вcix попередніх засіданнях міжнародної конференції з питань миру та роззброєння. - Я був присутнім на всіх попередніх засіданнях.
In the example above the extraction of the segment "International Conference on Peace and Disarmament" in the translated text does not violate any communication tasks, for the audience is sure to understand that the sentence concerns mis very conference.
To start with, I would like to declare that our delegation is satisfied by the course of the events... - Перш за все я xoтів би заявити, що наша делегація задоволена перебігом подій... - Наша делегація задоволена перебігом подій...
In this example the segment "To start with, I would like to declare " is a standard way of beginning a speech. The fact of starting off with declaration itself allows the interpreter to omit the initial part of the utterance which is compensated by the extra-linguistic situation.
2. Extracting those text segments which duplicate some piece of information in the speech.
The weapons, and primarily the nuclear weapons... - Зброя, i в першу чергу ядерна зброя... - Зброя, i в першу чергу ядерна...
Such repetitions and parallelisms are quite common rhetoric devices, so this method of speech compression is used widely.
3. Extracting the segments which are regarded as the common patterns of politeness, deviations, some epithets, etc. Sometimes even numerical data can be avoided (again, it should not result in violating the tasks of communication).
However, the interpreter should pay attention to the reliability of communication process and thus, define the margins of such transformations of the source-text.
The second group of compression methods is characterized by the replacement of a sentence or a phrase by a shorter sentence, word combination, or by a word. Here are some typical ones.
1. The replacement of full name of an organization, state, etc. by its abbreviation:
North Atlantic Treaty Organization - Організація Північно-Атлантичного договору – НАТО.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - Об'еднане Королівство Великобританії та Північної Ірландії – Великобританія.
2. The replacement of word combinations, such as "verb + noun with a meaning of action, process or state " by a verb representing the same action, process or state.
To give contribution - надавати підтримку – підтримувати.
To make a choice - робити вибір – вибирати.
3. The replacement of word combinations, such as "noun + linking participle + preposition + noun" by a nominative word combination without participle;
Reforms imposed be the government – Реформи, запро-поновані урядом - Реформи уряду
4. The replacement of subordinate clause by participial or prepositional phrases.
Those issues which were discussed at the last meeting... - Питання, які були обговорені під час останнього засідання... - Питання, обговорені пщ час останнього засідання...
Those ties that unite our countries... - Зв'язки, що об'єднують наші країни... -Зв'язки між нашими країнами...
There is a number of other effective methods of speech compression used in SI as well.
Speech compression is a result of particular conditions, which characterize SI activity, i.e. temporal limitations, and parallel flow of translation processes. The extent of compression is dictated by the need to retain moderate speech rate by the interpreter. Speech compression is somewhat a type of adjustment of translation activities to particular circumstances of communication process. The methods of speech compression are the devices of adjustment of translation activities to these particular circumstances and may be regarded therefore as operations. Speech compression is possible due to excess of information in the source-text and it does not affect the tasks of communication. However, results in some semantical transformations: the lexical-semantical structure is reduced, and the semantical-syntactical structure is simplified.

4.4 Assignments

1 How are the following units translated:
- a dancing teacher;
- drawing children;
- a reading teacher,
What transformations are helpful here?
Cf.: John is proud owner of a new car. – Джон має нову машину, якою він дуже пишається.
Does the semantic analysis work here?
2 Identify the equivalent types (denotational, situational, communicative, descriptive):
1 Ukraine gained its independence in 1991. Україна отримала незалежність b 1991 p.
2 He was standing with arms crossed. Він стояв схрестивши руки на грудях.
3 You are not serious. Ви не жартуєте?
4 He answered the door. Він відчинив двері.
5 A rolling stone gamers no moss.
Кому на місці не сидиться, той добра не наживе.
6 Maybe there is some chemistry between us that doesn't mix.
Буває, що люди не сходяться характерами.
3 How can one render the message of unserious nature?
• The way to fight a woman is with your hat. Grab it and run away (Barrymore).
• When a man acts he is a puppet. When he describes he is a poet (Wilde).
• In two words: im possible (Goldwyn).
• They gave me it for an unbirthday present (Carrol).
4 Identity complete, partial equivalents and translation loans.
• The game is not worth the candles. - Гра не варта свічок.
• The sword of Damocles. - Дамоклів меч.
• to turn back the clock - повернути назад історію.
• to mind one's P's and 0's – бути обережним.
























LECTURE V Some Practical Aspects of SI Activities

5.1 Phonetic Prognosis

The proficiency of the interpreter of making phonetic prognosis should be very high.
In SI the interpreter deals with units, smaller than extra-phrasal unites. The translational activities are carried out upon intonational and semantical units such as syntagmas and rhythmical groups, syntactical blocks and other parts of utterances. Therefore, the interpreter should easily recognize words by phonemes.
Here are some examples illustrating the result of inability to make phonetic prognosis:
Listeners render the phonetic complex [hiz'tenjere'vofis] (his tenure of office) as "десять років, що він відпрацював на nocaдi" ([hiz'tenjerze'vofis], "his ten years of office".
Another phonetic complex ['ife'fo:rin'paue'lo:nt∫izene'tæk] (if a foreign power launches an attack) was rendered as "якщо чотири держави нападуть" (['if 'fo:r'pauez-]).
The examples above indicate the need for developing the proficiency of making phonetic prognosis. For this, one should:
a) know the most common English names and surnames;
b) know the names met in the Bible as well as the names of popular literature figures and mythology characters;
c) be familiar with geographical names;
d) be familiar with as many notions as possible concerning the topic of the conference (including the body of the participants, the names of the most important public figures in this field;
e) be able to render the numbers.
It goes without saying that thesaurus of the interpreter should be extensive enough in order for the latter to perceive an unknown unit only as an unknown unit, but not to confuse it with another familiar one.



5.2 Typical Lexical Combinations

1. First of all it involves typical semantical ties and lexical valency of verbs. For example: to win (vt) smth. (a war, a prize, a contest, a race, an election, etc.); cf. перемогти (когось, щось), досягти перемоги (над кимсь, чимось), and also to win (over) smb. (to а саusе, one's side) with a meaning "render friendly or favourable to one's cause"; to contribute to (a solution, victory, cause, etc.); to settle smth. (the matter, the conflict, the issue, etc.) and so on.
2. Besides, the interpreter should be familiar with the most frequent attributive combinations. For instance: peaceful (solution, settlement, etc.); fundamental (principle, problem, etc.).
Here are some extracts from different speeches illustrating these aspects:
It is the opinion of my Government that, in order to be able to contribute effectively to the peaceful solution of the problem, the United Nations should recommend a solution based on several principles which appear fundamental to me. It seems to me there are very complicated, yet perfectly capable of solution, if we approach them seriously, problems.
As it is seen from the extracts, typical combinations may be distributed quite distantly in the sentence, and the knowledge of the most common ones can facilitate the process of prognosis.

5.3 Syntactical structure peculiarities

Another difficulty met in SI process is using complicated syntactical structure by speakers. It can be regarded as a rhetoric device. Its factors are
a) big number of predicative units;
b) distant distribution of semantic groups of phrases - the components of complex utterance
c) complicated system of subordination of predicative units;
d) non-linear correlation of predicative units.
The analysis of the following sentence will help to illustrate these peculiarities:
(1)
1. If I assume
3. that we accept
4. that a conscious movement towards a new security
system is preferable to anarchic and spontaneous change
1. then one of the main criteria
2. by which even disarmament proposals should be judged1. must be their contribution towards the creation of a new securitysystem.
There are 9 predicative units in this sentence, although 4 of them are contracted into nominative units. Such contraction blocks their comprehension significantly. (Compare the following paraphrase:
1. "We seem to prefer that we move consciously towards a new security system instead of allowing the situation to change in an anarchic and spontaneous way")
2. "... then one of the main criteria" stands at a distance of 19 words from the subordinate "If I assume... ", and the pronoun their in the phrase their contribution stands 6 words aside from disarmament proposals, to which it is directly linked.
3. If we paraphrase this sentence, so that it has a linear, retaining the logical sequences, structure, we obtain the following distribution of its semantical segments:
We seem to reject anarchic and spontaneous change and to prefer
that we move towards a new security system consciously.
If that is so,
then one of the main criteria of assessing disarmament proposals
should be their contribution to a new security systems.
This distribution is much more convenient for an interpreter, but, nevertheless, most of the speakers would consider it less emphatic.
4. As it had been discovered in the experiments by Victor Ingwe, the American linguist, there are two important factors that determine comprehension of speech. They are:
a) the number of words in the sentence;
b) the deepness of regressive structure of the sentence.
By "regressive structure" we understand the number of branching units in the sentence (the sentence, thus, has a tree-like structure). The worst level of comprehension is reached with the maximum number of words, and with the deepest structure of the sentence. There is one more factor which is as important in the process of speech perceiving - it is the distance of location of branching units.
The listener has to keep in his operative memory some incoming branching units without encoding them into bigger semantical blocks until the reception of the whole syntactical structure is completed. Therefore, the length of the sentence plays a very important role.
In our example, the location distances of branching units make 1) 20; 2) 8 and 3) 11 words, which excesses theoretically defined limits of our operative memory volume (7 ± 2 units).

5.4 The importance of background knowledge

As it was mentioned above, the process of searching and making translation choices should be based on using the "home storage of the interpreter". It reduces to minimum those cases when creativity is needed for searching the options and making translation choices, and thus, saves a lot of time. First of all this concerns the knowledge of proverbs, famous quotations (especially from classical works and the Bible), for those are used often as rhetorical devices.
For instance, the English-speaking part of the audience at the UN conference would easily recognize the quotation from "Julius Caesar" by W. Shakespeare, and so should do the interpreter.
... If you want to act, it should be now or never.
Mr. President, there is a tide in the affairs of men, which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune. So, let us take the current when it serves, lest we will not only lose our venture, but lose, above all, our sense of responsibility, our serious-mindedness and our self-respect...
Cf. There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;
Omitted, all the voyage of their life
Is bound in shallows and in miseries.
On such a full sea are we now afloat;
And we must take the current when it serves,
Or lose our ventures.
At the UN General Assembly, a representative from Singapore gives a piece of advice using a quotation from the Bible: "... in a dispute between the two states with which one is friendly try not to get involved. If that is unavoidable, support the stronger against the weaker, for although it may be true that the meek shall inherit the earth, that is only a contingent interest, and the strong who possesses the earth show no sign of immediate mortality..."
Блаженні лагідні, бо землю вспадкують вони
(Новий Заповіт, Матв. 5, 5)
The background knowledge and the "home storage" should allow the interpreter to recognize such quotations and make relevant translation reflexively (Everyman's Dictionary of Quotations and Proverbs, complied by D.C. Browning. Ldn. - N.Y., 1951).
Almost the same situation with proverbs - recognizing a proverb and finding its equivalent quickly, using the "home storage" is a great advantage. For a professional interpreter who has mastered reflexive translation of quotations and proverbs this skill provides considerable extra time - making prognosis after hearing the beginning of a proverb or quotation and making the translation choice appears to be faster than that of regular phrases.
Still, there is a problem concerning creativity of a speaker. Very often we have a [metaphoric] paradigm shift between the proverb in the source language and its equivalent in the target language. And the interpreter may find him/herself in a very complicated situation if the speaker intends to develop the metaphor:
During his speech, a speaker used a proverb "to put the cat near the goldfish bowl" which was translated as "пустити козла у город". Shortly, the speaker drowned the cat in the aquarium, and the interpreter could not manage to develop somehow his variant of the proverb.
Therefore, interpreting proverbs and idioms, metaphors and set expressions is case-sensitive, and sometimes it is worth giving an equivalent with the same object:
The bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
1) Синиця в руці краще, ніж журавель у нe6i.
2) Пташка в руках краще, ніж дві у кущах.
(The second choice is preferable in SI)
Another type of quotations made quite often by the speakers of different conferences refers to statutes of particular organizations (i.e. the interpreter of the UN conference should know the Statute if the UN) and other realities, such as popular TV commercials and slogans. For example, the Inauguration Address of J.F. Kennedy comprised quotations from a number of various sources: the Bible, the speech by President Lincoln, and even popular children rhymes.
Thus, the interpreter should work on enlarging the "home storage" and using it fluently, bringing the interpreting of various quotations and set expressions out on reflective level.

5.5 Assignments

1 Enlarge on the terms:
-source language (SL);
-target language (TL);
-source text (ST);
-target text (TT);
-exact/ accurate translation;
-viva voci translation;
-literary translation;
-literal translation.
2 Identify equivalents in:
Freedom-ride - "похід за свободу"; America-firster "ypa-патріотизм"; Fragile - "Увага, скло!"; No parking – “стоянка заборонена"; Wet paint- "пофарбовано"; instant coffee -"розчинна кава"; to swallow the bait-"пійматись на гачок"; Keep off the grass - "no тpaвi нe xoдити"; that's a pretty thing to say! – “соромно! Як тобі не соромно.”
3 Situational equivalents are differently worded, aren't they?
Cf.:
Хто його питає?
Who shall I say is calling?
До себе!
Pull!
Покрашено
Wet paint.
Він зійшов на берег у четвер.
He left the ship on Thursday.
Петро стиснув зуби.
Peter's face muscles tightened.


























LECTURE VI Practical Exercises on Developing SI Skills

6.1 Getting the Feel of the Booth

The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with machines, to learn how to behave in the booth, how to switch on and off the microphone and control the sound in the headphones. One should note that, when the microphone is on, there should be no noise in the booth, such as coughing, rolling a pencil, rocking a chair, etc. The actions of switching and controlling the sound systems should become automatic, without producing any noise.

6.2 Speaking into the Microphone

While learning how to use a microphone (i.e. the distance of positioning the microphone), the interpreter is training his/her voice. The speech (reading of written texts) in both English and Ukrainian has to be recorded and should take 2 or 3 minutes at a time. After working the training of voice out with the reading of written texts, one should proceed with spontaneous speaking on the given topic.

6.3 Listening Comprehension

This exercise allows to get used to the conditions of perceiving the source text in the booth, it develops perceptive and mnemonic abilities. The texts should be in foreign language only. The level of lexical and speech rate complexity should be gradually increased. After the listening, one should retell the text paying attention to the most complicated parts of it. The texts should be initially 3 to 5 minutes long, and the retelling should take 2 to 3 minutes. For personal practice the texts should be 15 to 20 minutes long, the retelling - 5 to 7 minutes.

6.4 Repeating the Source Text

This exercise is targeted at the management of parallel listening and speaking. Initially, the interpreter is listening to a source text in the native language and trying to repeat it in a regular low voice into the microphone at the same time. The lag is not decisive here. The text should be up to 5 minutes long. Then the repeating of the text in English, with long pauses between the phrases, is exercised. The interpreter should also try to speak louder and at a more regular rate. After some courses of repeating, the syntactical structure level, the speech rate in the source text are upgraded. The most complicated texts are those with so-called "torn" speech rate, because the repeating should be done at a regular smooth speech rate.

6.5 Repeating the Source Text with a Given Gap

This exercise develops the skill of breaking up the source text into 1 segments and speaking with an optimal lag. There are two types of segments: the first - semantical-intonational, and the second type -segments divided according to their syntactical structure. (Both variants should be worked out.)
To start with, a text with exaggerated logical pauses is chosen. The written copy of the text can be a great help. Until the initial skills are formed, the source text should be read, afterwards the recording is used. The interpreter learns to articulate the text into segments and repeats the text segment after segment, making big pauses after each semantical-intonational unit of definite type (rhythmical group, syntagma intonational member). During the first reading, the interpreter picks out only the smallest semantical-intonational groupings like rhythmical groups. During the second reading he pays attention to syntagmas. The most important aspect is to keep regular speech rate and even lags.
For the second variant, the source text should contain sentences with complex syntactical structure. The first step is to make the structure analyses of the sentences using the written copy of the source text. Then, after the analyses and marking the syntactical blocks of sentences, the written text should be read with pauses between the divided units. After that, the interpreter can get down to listening comprehension and articulating different syntactical blocks – the group of the subject, the group of the subject and a verb , the group of both subject and predicate. The final result is the lag approximately one sentence long. The source texts are 3-5 (group training) to 15 minutes (personal training) long.

6.6 Listening to the Source text and Delivering Another Speech Simultaneously

This exercise helps to develop the mechanism of synchronization. This mechanism regulates the flow of the process of listening and the process of speech delivering on different levels of consciousness.
At first, the exercise is done in native language. The attention should be paid to regular rate of the delivered speech. After that the source text is recited, with special emphasis on personal nouns, geographical names, numbers. Then the source text is upgraded (i.e. it should contain more specific data), then the source text is delivered in foreign language. Simultaneous delivering the text in native language is then replaced by reciting a poem or another text in native language memorized beforehand. This exercise is also very efficient for developing special psychological qualities. It should be done on a regular basis, with the role of an ice­breaker.

6.7 Consolidation of Lexical and Syntactical Equivalents

a) consolidation of lexical, phraseological equivalents, and terms.
For this purpose, the interpreter is creating three mini-dictionaries: one listing the terms, another - containing words and set expressions on social and political topics, the third - containing words and set expressions on those specialized topics he/she will be working on. The criteria for choosing the equivalents are stylistic neutrality and non-contextual meaning. Dictionaries on set expressions should be done in two variants: one with the translation from native into foreign language, another - v. v. Besides, a list of proverbs, idioms, popular quotations and slogans should be made as well. It is crucial to memorize the words and expressions from these dictionaries and the list and to have strong associations with each of them on subconscious level.
b) consolidation of syntactical equivalents
This is done mainly by comparing the syntactical structure of the source text with its translated version (SI version), and analyzing the transitions between word combinations and sentences of the source text with those of the translated text. After the recognition of the syntactical transition models, the interpreter exercises SI of word combinations and phrases, analyzed beforehand. At first he/she is allowed to listen to them to the end, but then he/she tries to interpret the phrase until its delivery in the source language is succeeded. Thus, it develops the skill of making prognosis of the syntactical structure.
The third phase of the exercise is combining the above points together, i.e. simultaneous interpreting extra-phrasal unites, starting with the most common and typical ones, familiar to the interpreter.

6.8 Speech Comprehension Exercises

(Basically, this paragraph refers to Speech Comprehwnsion Methods listed above)
At first, the interpreter becomes famaliar with speech comprehension methods, then consolidates these methods practically, beginning with fluent at-sight translation and moving up to SI and trying to use various speech compression methods. It is recommended to start with smaller lexical units.

6.9 At-sight Translation

As a preparatory phrase, at-sight translation is known to be very efficient in developing specific skills for SI.
- fluent translation of big texts containing difficult lexical and syntactical units helps to develop linguistic flexibility
- it is also effective for endurance and intensive work skills training
- it allows to improve he speed of the speech delivery in native language, resulting with speech rate higher than average.
There are two ways of doing this exercise: with texts translated beforehand and with unfamiliar texts. When given a text, the translation should be done orally. There is no point in doing written translation. At the beginning, it worth while making a list of equivalents of the most complicated words, and the list of opyimal translation choices. If the text is handed put only 10-15 minutes before the delivery text, the interpreter gets familiar with its content and prepares translation choices for the hardest places of the text. For mastering these skills, the delivered speech should contain some new information and differ from the initial text.
The first version of this exercise shoul smoothly flow into the second one – spontaneous at-sight translation. it is an advance stage of this exercise. The written copy of the speech is handed over before it is delivered or after the beginning of the delivering. The speech should be different from the written copy.
Thus, simultaneous interpreting is a type of translation having its own specific structure – processes defined as orientation in a sourse text, searching and making choices and their realization and flowing simultaneously due to the mechanism of synchronization; distinctive features, such as time pressure, no interaction with the speaker, making prognosis; and accompanied by linguistic transformations, primarily due to speech compression.
Simultaneous interpreting requires special training, i.e. developing background knowledge, mastering SI techniques, such as speech compression and making prognosis, consolidating lexical equivalents including proverbs, pupolar slogans and quatations, as well as doing practical exercises developing the mechanism of synchronization, speech delivering (intonation and speech rate), the lag, and using the equipment in the booth.
Simultaneous Reading of the Text Translated Beforehand

This exercise allows to improve the speech rate – having translated the text beforehand and delivering it while listening to the same text, the interpreter pays attention to the intonation, correspondence with the speaker’s speech rate and intonation. The text is upgraded due to irregular speech rate of the speaker. Various speech compression methods should be used as well. At the final stage of this exercise the delivered speech should contain some differences in the content and pieces of new information.

6.10 Assignments

1. Make a sight translation.
Cognitive Aspect of Numeric Words.
Words in their polyfunctionality nominate things, concepts, make sentences work, keep memory of the bygone days. People use words not only for communication but also for investigation. Numeric words make no exception here. They eyewitnessed the ways people used to cognise the world. Numeric words belong to counting names of discrete things. But in remote times these words were of another nature. This is proved by linguistic investigation, by reconstruction of old forms in diverse languages, by the study of semantic laws, tendencies, evolution of these paradigmatic units. The ethymological analysis of number and measure linguistic signs brings forward adequate and fruitful results. The mentioned analysis brings closer remote times, the mode of life of generations to have gone, their way of thinking, which spans efforts of people to cognise Universe.
Numeric words usually go back to nominal units. Counting as a process embraced those who count and the things counted. Many a scientific work has been devoted to the matter of nomination but until now it is still open for discussion. English numeric words are being traced in old European forms. These units fulfil not only nominative but also cognitive function. By the cognitive function we understand the ability of the mentioned units to reflect the major stages in the evolution in number cognising. Number cognising implies first and foremost the practice of identification – quantitative identification. The close study of quantitative units reveals their anthropomorphic nature. These words go back to the names of parts of body, of people, of instruments used, of things they counted and measured. The anthropomorphic tendency works both with numeric words and measure units. Though the former are of old function, the latter follow their semantic evolution.
Cf. Numeric words Measure words
dozen, couple, pair, brace ell, span, foot, fathom, yoke
score, one, five, ten thousand brace, acre, pint, stone, pond
hundred, million, milliard bushel, ton
Measure words are of later make and some of them are still speaking terms units until now. For example ell, span, foot, brace etymologically go back to the parts of body and their position. Another group (pint, bushel, ton, chaldron) go back to the names of containers in which things for measuring were kept. Other measure units (yard, rod, pole, par, stone) go back to the instruments of measuring. Some quantitative words are used for both numeric and measuring functions (dozen, couple, brace, yoke, score). Their similar evolution is vivid in metonymic shift object-name ® quantity ® name. With proper numeric words – numerals-the first link (object name) is lost with times. Reconstruction of old numeric forms in a set of languages illustrates the derivative nature of numerals, their constant modifications in terms of semantics. The first ten numerals go back to their unquantative predecessors which were once converted into present units. The derivative nature of numeric words is objectified by social factors. Counting as a means of cognition works in a team with advanced abstract linguocreative thinking. The numerals 1-10 go back to the names of fingers, toes and hands. This tendency is traced in many languages. Denominal nature is verified in the succeeded cycles of their evolution which somehow repeats the previous stages (N1® Num® N2).
Cf. fiver ($5), sixer (a team), millionair, millionairdom, etc.
Denominal nature of numerals is also traced in the process of lexicalization. In set expressions numerals lose their quantitative meanings. In this case numeric components yield to nominal ones. Quality comes forward: forty winks, as thick as two thieves, nine wonders, two dogs over one bone. Here numerals don’t matter much, they may be dropped or substituted.
Cf. to make two (both) ends meet, saying and doing are two (different) ways, as drunk as (seven) lords.
Original nominal property comes forth in words related by conversion: thousands people ® thousands of them. Bisemy of numerals i.e. their quantitative and non-quantitative meanings time and again is proved in their diachronic polyfunctionality.
Cf. two or three; two upon ten; to be in two minds; when two Sundays come together.
Deep reconstruction analysis of numeric words proves that binary oppositions were the first to usher in the succession of cognising stages of number. This statement is backgrounded by diverse data from mythology, legends, folklore, ethnography, archaeology and anthropology. Moreover it is revealed and rigidly into that in the semantic evolution of these units, their collocations and universal laws working with different language systems.
Binary opposition goes back to the notion of entity. The latter precedes the binary one: entire → binary (dismembered in two) ® singling out perception.
Cf. man and woman, sky and earth, light and darkness, etc.
This opposition of two was considered primarily as an entity. Gradually oneness was singled out of binary entity. Succeeding notions of three, four…gradually followed. Scientists assert that counting started with two. And it is true for two reasons: two introduced any other number multitude (2>1, 3>1, 4>1) and concept of two was dismembered into one diachronically. The study of binary opposition gives ground for an interesting linguistic assertion: antonyms (Cf. binary opposition day-night, light-darkness) preceded synonyms which are of later creation though they outnumber at present antonyms.
Dual system is the oldest one which is known for its object standard nature. Late Paleolithic period finds show that when people used to count and depict the results of their efforts in drawings. The remnants of the object standards are kept in the treasury of language forms. Some counting words go back to medieval times and work until now.
Cf. brace, yoke, fathon, pair, couple.
In late stone age Paleolithic period 35-10 thousand years ago people marked the results of counting by lines, dots, cycles. It was called Paleolithic Ornament. In those times people were afraid of nature and were scared off by numbers. They couldn’t overcome the diversity and power of nature while cognising it. Hunting, cattle breading and agriculture made people attentive to singling out phenomena. They tried to overcome the categories of time and space. The survivals of distant cultures prove the great difficulties which people overcame starting with duality.
Cf. Burial of two tweens, the unsplit figures, two goddesses, etc.
The categories from their start were of tripartite nature – objective, logical and linguistic. Until now the dual number is traced with the names of two eyes, two legs, left-right side of body, two hands, two arms, moon and sun, sunrise and sunset, day and night, etc. thus entity and duality have gone together but apart since times immemorial.
Duality (they say) is associated with matriarchy yielding to patriarchy. With the latter notion of three is closely connected. In mythology it is proved by unions of one god and two goddesses symbol. With Slavonic people three cycles symbolized the god of Sun implying morning, afternoon and night. In folk-tales there existed three-headed snakes, three kingdom, three urgent problems, three sons, three efforts and the alike.
Cognising is slow in its progress. The number of four repeated the evolution of 1, 2, 3 numbers. The Tripol agriculture was four number oriented due to the pressing urgency of land measuring. Four aspects (components) are anthropologically oriented too.
Cf. ahead, behind, left, right; cross image; four-faced god ruling the Universe.
Proverbs keep the results of cognition fresh and stable: each succeeding number was firstly perceived in terms of “many”.
Cf. two heads are better than one; four eyes see better than two; two is company, three is none.
The days of the week in their names go back to god’s names, three in number.
Cf. Thursday, Wednesday and Tuesday.
Thus the words keep history of civilization fresh and open to those people who are not reluctant to cognize it.
The explicit markers of remote object standard units are lost, for written numerals of nowadays present names of abstract quantitative units but the proof of their old backgrounds is verified by the study of: primeval language numerals (1), measure units of later make (2), reconstruction of old forms (3), semantic laws of quantitative words (4), their combinability and collocation (5), word-building potentiality (6) and anthropomorphic factors (7).
2 Identify the style of the units:
-headlines, highlights;
-advertisements;
-specific lexics;
-slang, allusions, neologisms;
-accepted norms;
-to be restricted in the choice of words and structures;
-differences in terminology;
-definitions;
-the formal register (style)
3 Verbal translation works on the morphemic level, doesn't it?
Cf.: fearful - страшний,
fearless - безстрашний.
Expand this list, give your comment.
4 What is a written translation? Choose for your answer units from the list:
-a ST is in a written form as a TT;
-dictation of "at sight" translation of a written text to the typist or to the short-hand writer -> translation in TL in a written form;
-special form of speech.
LECTURE VII Interlinguistic and Intercultural Aspects of Interpretation

7.1 Interlinguistic Aspect of Interpretation

Ambiguity works with polysemic words the choice of which depends much on the context
Cf. Ukr. Місце Eng. Place, area, spot, locality,
locale, role, past, turn, job
seat, birth, space, room;
a passing glance
a vacant stare
a fixed gaze
bold view
triumphant air
reproachful look
outlook on life
to exchange glances
to renounce one’s opinions
Ambiguity is the property of language units to bear several different meanings.
Cf. Ви бачите голову?
In this sentence the ambiguous word is “голова” (“a chairperson”, “a head”). The English sentence A bare conductor ran in the car is so ambiguous that it has become a joke of translators (Голий кондуктор бігав по вагону) (Miram, 13).
Interpreters should always keep in mind common scientific opinion that there are no direct links between the sign (language unit) and the denotatum (a fragment of the real world relating to a certain concept). We understand other people speaking the same language as well as they understand us because every time we speak or listen to others speaking, writing or reading we clarify the meaning of the words using the following three powerful disambiguation tools:
- context environment
- situation
- background information (Miram, 17).
By background information we understand common sense, knowledge, experience, the way the things are in life.
Polysemy is another obstacle in the way of translation. Polysemy is an ambiguity of a single word or expression to have different meanings.
Homonymy also constitutes a serious translation problem for both translators and interpreters.
Interpreters, as well as translators, are to cope with the extralinguistic world, with the perception of the latter by various social, professional and ethnic groups. Apart from these discrepancies in perception, interpreting is hampered by such an innate feature of a language as connotation. Connotation consists of all the components of a meaning that add some contrastive value to the basic meaning of a word.
Cf. eagle “a connotation of freedom, courage”
fox “cunning, deceptive”

7.2 Intercultural Aspects of Interpretation

We do a lot of things with language: we report an accident, express our emotions, give shape to our experiences, translate a passage, describe our research. Language makes sense by means of cognitive frames, the latter are thus decisive in how we experience the world. Frames or frameworks are principles of organizing experience. Frames are cognitive models. Cognitive frames project an intellectual stage or horizon and then legislate over what can and cannot appear on the stage. The world mirrors back to us our own face in an inverted form. Cognitive linguistics can hardly be overestimating while analysing original and target texts information: their formal and semantic structures, author’s intentions, reader’s perception and the like.
Cognition finds its way into semantics, language reflection potentials, sign asymmetry, world mapping, cross-cultural aspects and speech communication. International cultural contacts and cross-cultural connections came into being due to the great efforts of translators who strive for efficient ways of understanding, respect, harmonious international collaboratism, scrupulous study of customs and traditions, communicative standards, people’s behaviour, etc.
Cross-cultural training having been a common practice in many countries now is gaining its force on. Language and culture go together, not dissociated from each other. This makes a translation process (both oral and written) valid and crucial. Training of translators is constructed on major categories: grammar and discourse, sociolinguistic and strategic into that. These components make a main stream of translation. The first two (grammar and discourse) mirror the language at work – its inner laws, substance and function, efficiency of its units, intersentential relationship.
Sociolinguistic and strategic subcategories refer to communicative parameters – social context, interaction of participants, goals, strategies, intentions.
Sociolinguistic factor is gaining stronger and stronger position in the training process of translators. Nowadays cross-cultural aspects are on the par with contrastive studies of languages, they both feed back training process, make it efficient.
Cross-cultural aspects permeat translation / interpretation: sociolinguistic competence works wonders with actualization of goals. A translator faces a great problem with cultural disparity of source and target languages. Cultural differences impact on language forms and functions. In this condition a translator is to be aware of verbal and nonverbal behaviour of a language community – beliefs, values, manners, feelings, paralinguistic phenomena like gesture, posture, facial expression, movement. In a nutshell he is to be on the alert with acceptable / unacceptable things.
Communicatively relevant choices encourage people to act likewise. Words like garments clothe the ideas, make them go. Enormous or microscope effect depends on the proper usage of words, their explicit and implicit adequacy, cultural sources. Culture being rooted in ethnic identity lives in ideas, values, behaviour of community individuals and can’t be ousted from language acquisiton. Translators / interpreters are to be exposed to intercultural aspects let alone interlingual relating to their would-be profession. They are to be conversant with the contexts of utterances (narrow and broad, linguistic, cultural, situational boundaries). A translator is to be equipped both with declarative and procedural knowledge. Obvious bilingual environment of a translator requires efficient acquisition of linguistic and cultural skills. Broad-based education of translators requires the appropriate level exposure to culturally-oriented form of authenticity and language adequacy. The notions of script, scheme and frame facilitate comprehension of human cognition, communication, activities. These provide translators with structures of expectation. Knowledge structures represented in the language are either of universal, or ethnographic or individual nature. It’s obvious a translator is to be in the know of many things focusing much of his attention on ethnographic character. Cultural aspects constitute a major part in translator training, for they provide adequate comprehension of ethnographic peculiarities. Special cultural models are taken-for-granted, presupposed to be dealt with the process of translation for the efficiency. Many scripts are mostly acquired via cultural norms subconsciously in contrast to knowledge which is gained mostly consciously. Special discourse patterns and culturally predetermined expectations are badly needed on the part of a translator / interpreter to fulfil his task adequately, faithfully.

7.3 Assignments

Make at-sight translation
Pavel Palazchenko
The role of the interpreter in our century has become evermore crucial, though that’s only imperfectly understood outside those tiny groups at the summit.
I started working for the UN in 1974 in the interpretation service of the United Nation’s Secretariat, worked there for 5 years, so that was, probably, what you would call the big experience and certainly a major learning experience for me. I would say that professionally I owe everything to, first of all, my school, the Institute of Foreign Languages in Moscow, and secondly, my 5 years of working at the UN.
Well, any meeting when you interpret at the highest levels of government, any summit meeting work requires a lot of concentration and you do feel, you know, more than kind of average responsibility. On the other hand any interpreter, when he or she do any kind of work, have to concentrate. This is a must whether you interpret at a summit or you interpret at some conference.
Normally my interpretation style is that you try to be a little more neutral than the speaker because the principal speaker has other ways of expressing whatever he wants to express, whether it is warmth, or strength, or cordiality, or relaxed manner, the body language also works. And it is good to leave it to the principal … to use the body language and to use all the other resources.
So my interpretation style is always somewhat more neutral than what the speaker is saying. I believe that that’s the right approach. So certainly the evolving relationship and the emerging warmth, the emerging human relationship is mostly expressed by the speaker, by the President or whatever the person is. I never try to act too much, I never try to pick it up altogether. After all I’m an interpreter, I am not someone who is playing the role of my principal in a different language.
Bruce Boeglin
The experiences before I became an interpreter have been invaluable. I don’t think you can be an interpreter without a certain baggage or luggage, if you like, that you carry around, of things that you’ve learned and forgotten, the way people behave, the things that people know, the things that people say, the customs. All these things have been assimilated and when you go to a meeting you bring all that with you. There are only words I know, but interpretation is more than words.
It was just a way of solving my financial situation. So I came to the UN as a translator.
Do you know that translators write, interpreters speak. The translator has all the time in the world, perhaps, the interpreter doesn’t. The translator can have his references and consult them; the interpreter can’t. the translator takes his work home, when it’s not finished; the interpreter must finish when the meeting finishes, etc. Translation for me was really a drudgery, my nature doesn’t accept it very easily. Quite honestly I couldn’t really live very happily as a translator. And at the end of 2 years I was told by my superiors that there was a programme going alone at the United Nations, being launched whereby translators could train to become interpreters.
If you are a translator, you are an erudite, perhaps a slow-thinker, it doesn’t matter, but a thorough person. An interpreter has to be quick even if he isn’t thorough. From the character standpoint they are completely different people. They thought that anyway the translator could sweat away at his desk all morning and then in the afternoon go zipping through a meeting without a hesitation, without an “amm…” or “ar…”. It was impossible, but what was possible for me was to say, “I’d rather leave the translation section altogether and go into the interpretation section”, which I did. There is some kind of, as we say, mental reactions that have to be trained – to hear and speak at the same time, but evidently I think you are wired for it, meaning that you are born with it like music being able to play the piano. You know, some people can just sit down without training and play the piano. They have a talent for it. And I think interpreting is the same thing.
There are two kinds, forgive me for being a little technical here, there are two kinds of interpretation. One is consecutive, when you speak after the speaker, in other words, you’ve memorized it or taken notes, and you rebuild the speech. It can be a whole speech. And there’s another kind called the simultaneous which is you’ve got earphones on, you hear “good morning”, you say “Bon jour”. And the speech goes on, fast or slow, slurred or well-articulated – you follow. But my most embarrassing moments have been – and then they really have been embarrassing – I’ve had several times when I was sitting just three people in the room around the table, very important people, in very awkward situations, when one person says to another something that is very close to an insult, and the other person, not speaking English, didn’t understand, and I had to interpret looking him in the eyes 3 feet away and very politely telling him the insult. And I could see the red rising from his colour right up to the root of his hair. I’ve done the same thing with another lady ambassador. I found it a very, very awkward moment.
Oh, I love this profession so much that I … You know, I do have a school here, in New York and I do have young recruits who come along and I do try to light the fire in them. And tell them how wonderful it is to start this profession. Not only will you find that you are someone who helps another group of people understand the first party, but you will find yourself … you will derive so much enrichment, personal enrichment from it. And you will get such enormous satisfaction in being able to create understanding and to explain things that may have been misunderstood otherwise I don’t know any other profession like it and I’m still, still at it.
Aleck Tumayan
You have to at all times to maintain a dignified and somewhat impersonal posture … at the same time I don’t know if I make everything clear, but it is very important to reflect the nuances, reflect the feelings, reflect the exact words or thoughts because there is a very important principle. The speaker’s thoughts and ideas are his or her prerogative and should not be interfered with, but the choice of words to convey that meaning – that is the interpreter’s prerogative and that too should not be interfered with. So you have some leeway, provided you know exactly what you’re doing. You have some leeway and sometimes you will use more words and the bottom line is – have you achieved communication? That’s really what we’re talking about – problem solving in the process of communication.
I think the body language is quite obvious, quite clear. And if there is a tense situation you should not try to defuse the tenses [tension].
It may be the intention of a speaker to convey that he’s very-very annoyed and he’s getting very-very impatient.
The language skills is, perhaps, the least important component in interpreting. And this may sound paradoxical, but I know some who are very poor linguists and are excellent interpreters because they have innate skill for communication. And I know some superb linguists who are not very good interpreters because they simply cannot put themselves in that particular groove where you need to be a good interpreter.
Yes, you do need to do your homework, you do need to brief yourself not only about the subject at hand, but any other subject that might come into the picture because that always can be unexpected. You may have a meeting which is supposed to discuss economic issues and at the end somebody will say “and by the way we have this political problem (to discuss)”. So you really are to know a deal about issues, by trying to keep yourself inform: you read newspapers, you listen to the news, you try to do background reading in a variety of subjects.
You are born with the skills whatever they are that you need to be an interpreter. Just as you are born with a knack for music or the manual dexterity that you need to be a surgeon. They are certain innate skills that you are born with. That you can develop by training, by working. I consider that even after all these years every time I interpret I learn something new, every time I interpret I become better at the craft, I learn new ways of expressing thoughts, new vocabulary evolves, of course, because so many technologies are evolving. So it’s a matter of being born with it. And sometimes you don’t even know it. I did not know it myself until I’ve just discovered it by accident.
We may be going into a situation where more and more people will communicate in one language, English. English without any doubt the dominant language in the world today. So we may well be going into a situation where we are decreasing the number of interpreters in the major languages. At the same time we are increasing the number of interpreters in the languages which a generation ago were never considered to be international languages: Byelorussian, Ukrainian. So is it a drop or is it a shift? Only time will tell, but it seems to me that in the situation we are moving into.
I usually refrain from giving advice to younger people. But I would say unless you are very-very proficient don’t even think about it; unless you have a very genuine deep interest in the process of communication per se and are willing to be informed about many-many subjects … don’t even consider it; unless you have a very good retentive memory, which is a gift, of course, you can develop it but the raw material has to be there at first.
I consider myself extremely fortunate to have known the people I’ve known and it has been a tremendous experience!
































LECTURE VIII Additional Information on Interpreting

8.1 Roots of Interpreting

Although it was never written or properly studied, history of interpreting goes back to ancient times and remotest antiquity. People who did not know each other’s language still wanted to talk to each other to make peace or to exchange goods. And they resorted to the services of those who could help them in their exchanges and who could talk for both sides, that is be a bilingual mediator in the complex process of negotiations.
However scarce, we could still trace back some evidence of interpreting and interpreters playing an important role in human affairs in the past history. It is known for a fact, that a French lawyer advised his king in the early XII century to set up a school of interpreters for use in the Middle East during the crusades. We also know that two centuries later Christopher Columbus sent young Indians to Spain to be trained as interpreters. And we also know that all embassies in foreign counties had interpreters for contacts with local people and governments. Peter I in his Table of ranks even assigned a special place for interpreters and translators. In those times there was no discrimination between the two domains and both were regarded rather as a skill or trade than a profession.
All this is totally different from what is known today as conference interpreting which is highly professional field requiring advanced learning and special training. Conference interpreting (CI) actually started during World War I, and until then all internatinal meetings of any importance had been held in French for that was the language of the XIX-th century diplomacy.
After the Armistice (11. 11.1917) had been signed interpreters were invited to work for the Armistice Commissions and later at the Conference on the Preliminaries of Peace. This was the period when conference interpreting techniques started to be developed. According to the conference interpreter of the time Jean Herbert they interpreted in consecutive teams of two, each into his mother-tonque. “We had to take down and translate verbatim (word for word) speeches which occasionally lasted well over an hour. It may be said that that exacting exercise led us to develop for the first time in history a technique of consecutive interpretation, with taking notes, etc. as we know it.

8.2 From Skills to Profession

So conference interpreting was becoming a profession, assuming certain standards in the period between the two World Wars. It started as a nonprofessional skill, developed from sentence-by-sentence interpreting into consecutive proper and involved special techniques of taking notes as well as many others.
This interpreting process continued throughout the life of a person and requires: a) tact and diplomacy, b) above average physical endurance and good nerve with the interpreter going to the rostrum to deliver his translation as soon as the speaker had come down. Interpreters of that time had never had any particular training for the profession, they simply evolved from among bilingual young officers and diplomats and their inauguration into the profession was a rather painful process.

8.3 Rules and Standards

However hat was the time when certain standards, or rules for the interpreter’s and conduct were being set. Among those the following should be mentioned: 1. The interpreter is not supposed to interrupt the speaker, however lengthy the latter’s speech might be; 2. The interpretation should not take more time than the original speech; 3. The interpretation should be verbatim, in the sense that it should not be reduced to a summary or an expose of the original text, but should be a complete and adequate translation of the latter. The standards were few, but they were strict rules and are thoroughly observed until today.



8.4 Personal Qualities

Added to these should be personal qualities of a professional interpreter which make a long list of assets, and of which we shall mention here but a few: a) a broad education background; b) perfect mastery of the active languages (the languages from which and into which the interpreter can work); c) university training or its equivalent; d) the faculty of analysis and synthesis; e) the capacity to adapt immediately to the subject-matter, speakers, public, and conference situations; f) the ability to concentrate; g) good short and long-term memory; h) a gift for public speaking and a pleasant voice; I) intellectual curiosity and intellectual probity.

8.5 Schools of Interpreting

Schools of interpreting have been set up in many countries to turn out qualified personnel/ the oldest is the Geneva school of interpreters; there are schools in Paris, London, Washington, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Trieste, and of course in Moscow.
Enrollment qualifications and the term of study in these schools differ, but they are well-established and broadly recognized schools.
As the scope of international contacts grew, so grew the need for conference interpreters. Within the profession specialization developed to serve bilateral and multilateral contacts consecutive interpreting (CT) remaining the principal medium of communication in bilateral contacts, while simultaneous is a conventional and universally accepted medium at multilateral meetings.

8.6 Specialization

By specialization, however, we do not imply (mean) that interpreter should necessarily specialize either in consecutive or in simultaneous interpreting. In fact, to qualify as a conference interpreter actually means to qualify in both, and all schools of interpreters turn out people trained to do both.
So by specialization we rather mean different techniques employed by the consecutive interpreter and consequently the necessity to master these techniques in the course of training.
The words “conference interpreting”, “conference interpreter”, “consecutive interpretation”, and “simultaneous interpretation” have now become terms in the profession as well as in theory of translation. Prior to defending the terms, it will be useful to describe their meaning from a pragmatic view by associating them with certain practices.

8.7 Types of Interpreting

Conference interpreting differs from other types of interpreting (discourse interpreting, interpreting in court, tourist and travel agencies, etc.) mostly by the techniques used: consecutive rendering of whole speeches and simultaneous rendering of all that is being said in the original (the speaker’s) language over a certain period of time, usually half an hour at least, whilst the traditional mode of other types of interpreting – even far back in history – has been, and is sentence-by-sentence translation.
A conference interpreter is one whose office (task) is to translate orally the speeches of participants in meetings, conducted in two or more languages. This mission may be performed simultaneously or consecutively in the participant’s presence.
Consecutive interpretation is performed by the interpreter who sits with participants in the conference room and takes notes of what is being said. At the end of each statement he gives an oral translation, with or without the help of his notes.

8.8 CI Subvarieties

Within the described varieties of conference interpretation there are subvarieties which should also be mentioned. Consecutive interpretation may not necessarily also be performed in the presence of the participants, but can be dictated from the interpreter’s notes into a dictating machine, or to a typist in case the statement of the speaker (his language) has been understood by the listener, and they want to ponder and absorb it after the session to be able to take appropriate decisions on it. This subvariety is usually referred to as postponed consecutive interpretation.

8.9 Assignments

1 Can you explain the units:
- a conventional term;
- faithful rendering of sense/ form;
- various transformations are available.
2 A word-for-word translation is:
- consecutive;
- verbal;
- oral;
- out of text meanings;
- retained word-order?
3 Do you agree that discrepancy between the transmitted and received messages is structural/semantic?
Cf.: - He is a hearty eater (AdjN). - Він любить поїсти.

- It was so dark I couldn't see her. – У темряві я не міг її бачити.
- That was a long time ago. It seemed like 50 years ago.– Це було давно – здавалось, що пройшло вже років 50.
- I am a sound sleeper. – Я міцно сплю.











LECTURE IX Translation and Discussion

9.1 Prototypical Equivalence in English - Ukrainian Translation

Recent developments in cognitive linguistics [Zabotynska, 1992; Pocheptsov, 1990; Vorobyova, 1993] account for the necessity of reevatuating the situation with cross-cultural studies of English as a second language. Harbinger attempts in cognitive insights [Marton, 1968; Nickel, 1971; Rosch, 1973; Rosch, 1977; Rosch, 1978; Warren, 1977; Wittengestein, 1953] have paved the way, and yet much is left to be done in terms of text linguistic, cognitive linguistic, typology and translation. Modern linguists [Pocheptsov, 1983; Pocheptsov, 1990; Barkhudarov, 1975; Komissarov, 1990; Korunets, 1986; Kobyakova, 1996; Zhuravleva, 1996; Shvachko, 2001] are preoccupied with the anthropocentric, linguistic and social aspects of communicative units. But there are still a great number of problems aloof from the in-depth investigation of, say, contrastive study of texts, their evolution, function, translation from SL and TL.
The theory of congruence and equivalence applied to nominative units [Krzeszowski, 1986] can be expanded to communicative units. This theory is based on the assumption that linguistic constructions can be characterized by clusters of pragmatic, semantic and syntactic properties. Different constructions, it appears, exhibit various degrees of correspondence. This kind of correspondence can be referred to as matching, and it extends over a continuum from full matching, via partial matching, to no matching at all. A higher degree of matching of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic properties reflects the higher degree of overall equivalence in terms of translation. pragmatic equivalence is vivid in production of the perlocutionary effect. Lexical and syntactic properties may vary from SL to TL.
Cf. Birds of a feather flock together. – (Ukr.) Рибалка рибалку бачить здалеку.
to kill two birds with one stone – (Ukr.) За двома зайцями.
Semantic and pragmatic identity of these communicative units may not befriend the syntactic and lexical identity, though they may go together.
Cf. He who doesn’t work neither shall eat. – (Ukr.) Хто не працює, той не їсть.
He laughs best who laughs last. – (Ukr.) Сміється той, хто сміється останній.
Thus, the proverb Fine feathers make fine birds may be rendered by different syntactical structures: (Ukr.) Одяг красить людину. Або: Прибери пеньок і він гарним буде.
Different images (Eng.) features – birds; (Ukr.) Одяг – людина, пеньок – гарний are used in these proverbs. But this divergencies are not detrimental for semantics, for meaning is prior here.
Complete matching is to observed when such semantic, lexical, syntactic and pragmatic parameters come into being which is quite vivid in the text, not beyond the verbal situation.
Cf. Add fuel to the fire (flame) – (Ukr.) Підливати масла у вогонь.
Add wings to – (Ukr.) Придавати крила, окриляти.
Against the hair – (Ukr.) Проти шерсті.
All cats are grey in the night – (Ukr.) Вночі всі коти бурі.
Partial matching is rooted in the semantic identity while other parameters vary.
Anything for a quiet life – (Ukr.) Чим би дитина не бавилась, аби не плакала.
Feel the draught – (Ukr.) Бути в скрутному становищі.
Fetch one’s salt – (Ukr.) Заробляти на шматок хліба.
Matching works on different parameters - semantic, syntactic, pragmatic – with different languages.
Thus, we assume, that constructions and communicative units with semantic identity may be different or similar in their surface aspect, i.e. explicitly.
The universality of the semantic base is specifically rendered by the lexicon and syntax of a certain language. This assumption leads to the theories of translation performance and equivalence that characterize bilingual competence of a translator. The objects of translation are always referentially charged, thematically and anthropologically complete. But identity of the theme does not necessarily presuppose the identity of the rheme.
(1) A friend – a person, whom one likes, respects and meets often.
(2) A friend in need is a friend indeed.
(3) In every mess I find a friend. In every port a wife.
(4) A friend in power is a friend lost.
(5) A steady patriot of the world alone, the friend of every country, but his own.
(6) There is a friend that sticketh closer than brother.
(7) They wert my guide, philosopher and friend.
(8) O friend unseen, unborn, unknown,
Study out my words at night, alone:
Read a poet, I was young.
(9) Give me the arrowed, erect and manly foe;
Firm I can meet perhaps return the blow;
But of all plagues, good Heaven, the wrath can send,
Save me, oh, save me, from the candid friend.
In (1), (2), (6), (7) the concept “friend” is treated due to the tradition. In (3), (9) the linguo-creative function modifiers social experience and gives its own vision: humorous (3), (4), (5), serious (8) and ironical (9).
The concept “friend” is represented differently due to the author’s intention. To render statements (1) – (9) into TL a translator should, by all means, retain their axiologic nature. Perlocutionary parameters depend greatly on the authors’ and translators’ competence to render, for example, serious or non-serious information. Rendering texts of proverbs present considerable difficulties.
Cf. (10) An apple a day keeps a doctor away – A laugh a day keeps a doctor away (Coblin).
(11) Take care of the pence and the pounds will take care of themselves (proverb) –Take care of the sense, and the sounds will take care of themselves (Carrol).
(12) An old friend is better than two new friends (proverb) – better a new friend than an old foe (Spencer).
Examples (10) – (12) refer to the textual derivation process of the text. Derivative texts provide here a new perspective; in this case serious texts may be converted into non-serious. Authors may play on their form. Cf. When I am good, I am very, very good, when I am bad , I am better (West). Linguistic jokes of this type give much trouble to translators. Linguo-creative function works wonders here producing a humorous effect.
One cannot investigate the issue of pragmatic value of an utterance in abstraction from its specific context (verbal or non-verbal). There is no pragmatics outside the context of language users. It is an untenable assertion that texts are alike in their perlocutionary effect. Identity of effects does not guarantee pragmatic equivalence of speech units.
Cf. (13) All visitors are kindly requested to leave the boat immediately.
(14) Get the hell out of here!
Both have identical perlocutionary effects (visitors leaving the boat); but yet pragmatically the units differ greatly.
Pragmatic equivalence appears to be dependent on elements of extralinguistic context attending the production of equivalent utterances differ greatly.
Properties that are important in determining pragmatic equivalence constitute a GESTALT in the sense of Lakoff, i.e. an integrated structure, an entity; cf.: in (13), (14) respectively “polite request to leave the boat”. The relevant parameters are tripartite: type of speech act (request, order), modality (politeness or rudeness) and anticipated perlocutionary effects (visitors leaving the boat). The most accurate equivalent correspondences are at work with all parameters – semantic, syntactic and pragmatic – due to which more prototypical and less prototypical equivalents appear in translation. the cross-cultural aspects can, therefore, be seen as a multifocal space with various linguistic forms in SL and TL connected by identical GESTALTS.
A high degree of matching (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) is caused by the fact that the most prototypical, equivalent senses are immanent in the TL. Care should be taken with linguistic jokes of the following zeugmatic type:
They covered themselves with dust and glory.
He could permit himself a red tie and some private opinions.
He would get out of bed and humour.
Maxims as well as connundrums universally work with any languages but their translation is a great nuisance, especially when these texts are marked idiosynchrasy. In linguistic curiosity shop dominant are cases of play on words, zeugma and oxymoron which should be rendered by special linguistic means of TL and handled with special care.
(15) Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you (pun) –(Ukr.) Не біжи поперед батька в пекло.
(16) The business of the US is business (Coolidge) – (Ukr.) Головний бізнес США – це бізнес.
In (16) the play on words is similar due to the international nature of the word “business”. Such words are not always translator’s “true friends”, some of them serve as “false friends of translators” (FFT).
Cf. Robe – “long garment”, “academic robe”, “judge’s robe” – (Ukr.) роба;
Costume – “woman’s tailored suit” – (Ukr.) костюм;
Decade – “a period of ten years”, “a group of ten” – (Ukr.) декада;
Academy – “ a school devoted to special training”, “ a military academy”,
“ an academy of art” – (Ukr.) академія, вища школа;
Lunatic – “mad”, “insene” – (Ukr.) лунатик, сновида;
Medicine – “ substance used in treatment” – (Ukr.) медицина;
Sympathy – “ sharing of grief sorrow” – (Ukr.) симпатія.
Cross-cultural studies of English and Ukrainian bring students to the conclusion that a smaller degree of similarity is effected by the inner laws of a language, typological distance, semantic volume and structure of SL and TL.
Cf. freedom-ride – (Ukr.) “похід за свободу”;
America-firster – (Ukr.) “ура патріотизм”;
“Fragile!” – (Ukr.) “Увага, скло!”;
“Wet paint!” – (Ukr.) “Покрашено!”.
Curiosity cases are not chaotic. There are certain principles, factors which rules them; cf.; homonyms which give trouble for translators. These units are different with different languages (especially unpredictable in linguistic jokes). Here searches are made in the daylight with candles to produce a similar effect in the TL.
Cf. -Waiter? – Yes, sir.
-What’s this? – It’s bean soup, sir.
-Never mind what it has been. I want to know what it is now.
Thus, a translator should be first of all a philologist. Dealing with set expressions a translator should resort either to equivalents or to analogies. Equivalents in TL may be (17) absolute and (18) close.
Cf. (17) a lost sheep – (Ukr.)”заблудла вівця”; the fair sex – (Ukr,) “прекрасна стать”; Alladin’s lamp – (Ukr.) “лампа Алладіна”;
(18) baker’s dozen – (Ukr.) “чортова дюжина”; love is another love
(Ukr.) “кохання породжує кохання”; one fool makes many – (Ukr.) “дурість заразлива”.
An overwhelming majority of English idioms have similar corresponding phraseological units (PhU) in Ukrainian, so called idiomatic analogies. As a rule these PhU are very close in their meaning, and metaphoric to that. Cf,: to have the ready tongue – (Ukr.) “за словом у кишеню не лізти”; like mistress, like maid – (Ukr.) “яблуко від яблуні недалеко падає”, etc. Approximate analogies are partially similar to the SL idioms, though not less picturesque or expressive at that. Cf.: to lose one’s breath – (Ukr.) “кидати слова на вітер”; no bees, no honey – (Ukr.) “під лежачий камінь вода не тече”.
Descriptive translation consists in the shift of SL and TL levels; the structures of the units differ, while the meaning of them remains. Cf.: wind in the head – (Ukr.) “зазнайство”; mad as a hatter – (Ukr.) “божевільний”.
Translation operations are not devoid of (19) addition, (20) omission or (21) modulation provided these operations do not deteriorate the meaning in TL.
(19)It was Friday and soon they’d go out and get a drink (J.Braine) – (Ukr.) П’ятниця, день отримання зарплати, і незабаром ці люди вийдуть на вулиці і почнуть пиячити.
John is a proud owner of a new car. – (Ukr.) Джон має машину, якою він дуже пишається.
(20) There were pills all over the place and everything smelled like Vicks Nose Drops (Sallinger) – (Ukr.) І тут, і там стояли каплі від нежиті.
(21) For dessert we got Brown Betty which nobody ate (Sallinger) – (Ukr.) На десерт принесли пудинг “Рижа Бетті”, який ніхто не захотів їсти.
Complete and partial equivalencies reflect the degree of matching in terms of structure (S) and meaning (M).
Let us examine more examples. The Ukrainian-English word pairs of the type house “дім”, teacher “вчитель”are alike in their meanings and structure. The models S1M1=S2M2, present complete equivalence. Partial equivalence appears in the pattern with structural differences in which M1=M2 and S1≠S2. Cf.: book - (Ukr.) “книжка”, note-book – (Ukr.) “зошит”, I wonder – (Ukr.) “цікаво”, I say – (Ukr.) “послухай”.
FFT do not enlarge the group of partial equivalence for their meanings dash, structurally these units are variants.
Cf. complexion – (Ukr.)”колір шкіри”, fraction – (Ukr.) ”дріб”, artist – (Ukr.)”художник”.
It is common knowledge that translation process covers both nominative and communicative units. Rendering humorous stories presents quite a challenge. The mental category of humour is a great nuisance for comprehension and translation. Humour is of ethnic nature, and in translation its cross-cultural aspect is of great importance. Humour of English speaking people varies geographically (The Book of American Humour, 1984; the Book of English Humour, 1980). They that American humour has much in common with humour of other people. American humour is a minute variation of British hunour. The English people laugh with Mark Twain. American humour is a frequenter with Londoners. The English Punch used to be a resident of Boston clubs, though it was born in Lancashire as after-dinner stories, sallies. New Yorker , as a miniature of American humour, is welcome into England – the land of caricature and parody. Experts used to say that British humour renders the rational ridiculous while American humour renders the ridiculous rational. British humour favours litotes, understatements, American humour prefers hyperboles, overstatements. American jokes are lengthy and winding, English ones are snappy, pertinent, compressed.
Both present difficulties for translation because of different ethnic and cultural background. British humour is curiously private and domestic, it manifests itself in grins, chuckles, old conventions, offers almost nothing to the casual arrival from other countries. American humour flows from the merry traits of American nature, it is spontaneous, quick, unexpected ‘basic commodity’, cf.:
California is a fine place to live in if you happen to be an orange (Allan).
We are the first nation in the world to come to the poorhouse in the car. Vice-president: a spare tire on the automobile of Government (Garner).
How can you stop a dead fish from smelling? – Cut off its nose (Allan).
Shoe-repairs: We can’t make you rich. But we guarantee to keep you well-heeled (Cf.: heal :: heel).
Wit and humour make harmony between men who are opposed in politics, morality and character; contrastive study of humorous stories in SL and TL is most timely with regard to modern trends in linguistics.
Tentative conclusions which can be drawn from our study are as follows:
-the linguistic forms of an SL have more or less prototypical equivalents in a TL;
-the prototypical effects vary over a considerable range of units in a TL;
-non-prototypical effects come into being due to languages divergencies and fill gaps of linguistic competence;
-a smaller degree of similarity (looser pattern matching) is expected to be present in typologically distant languages.

9.2 Substandard English via Translation

Language fulfils an extremely wide variety of functions in human society. It is by means of language that we shape and express our thoughts, convey our feelings and wishes. Language in its written and oral form is the instrument of mass media-press, wireless, television and cinema. For the realization of various language functions in speech there have developed various types of language, each of which is characterized by special lexical, grammatical and phraseological means.
We single out the following styles: colloquial, academic, official or business and literary. The term «colloquial style» is used with two meanings. On the one hand, it is used to denote the degree of literacy to be observed in speech and is incorporated in the following gradation: high style, middle style, low style. This classification is convenient when describing vocabulary and is used for stylistic labeling in dictionaries. On the other hand, the same term is used to designate one of the functional varieties of the literary language. To avoid confusion resulting from this ambiguity, the term «colloquial style» is often used for the latter. Slang is of obscure origin, its forms nevertheless suggest the connections with the English word “sling” that is «to fling», «reproach».
All colloquial words and phrases which have originated in the rude speech of vagabonds and unlettered classes or belonging in form of standard speech which have acquired or have had given them restricted, capricious, or extravagantly metamorphic meanings, and are, therefore, regarded as vulgar or inelegant, may be considered slang. Slang is also currently widely used and understood language, consisting of new meanings attributed to existing words or of wholly new words, generally accepted as lying outside standard polite language. Originated from the attempt to produce new fresh impression into a language, slang will either usually pass out of usage in time or be accepted into a standard usage, a conventional language that is peculiar to a group, profession or social class, as a teacher’s slang, schoolboy slang. It comes in different forms: single words, simple phrases, idioms and compound phrases.
Cf.: dip «п’яний», deep pocket «богатій», See you later, alligator «побачимось пізніше», walk away with something «вкрасти щось», Who shot John? «самогон».
Slang is indeed used by persons of every grade of life/ It changes with fashion and taste; and sometimes leaves the permanent and recognized additions to language. It consists of words which stand out predominately in colloquial speech and the very sense of the word slang implies the conception of a spoken standard language, many other normal forms of speech popularly are regarded as correct. Slang differs much from the dialect, for the latter is a local or professional form of speech, characterized by some peculiarities of accent, pronunciation or grammatical usage. In truth, slang enters more or less into all colloquial speech and into inferior popular literature much as newspapers and political addresses.
There are two principal characteristics which taken together may form other varieties of diction that in some aspects resemble it.
Nicknames are indeed a kind of slang, and like slang may be used for the purpose of concealing meaning from the hearers. When slang is used our life seems a little fresher an a little personal. The sheer newness and information of certain slang words produce pleasure. Slangy words are understood only by native speakers, they usually win general recognition as fresh innovations: beans “money”, dough “brass”, upper story ‘head’.
The expressiveness of slang words may be result of their figurativeness in cases: to skin “to still everything”, to rubber ‘to be inquisitive”. The expressiveness of some slangy units may be caused by their phonetic peculiarities, by their onomatopoetic nature (posh, smash), or by the abbreviation or distortion of the common words (telly “TV”, ad “advertisement”). Expressiveness, novelty, certain coarseness make slang words emphatic and emotive compared with neutral synonyms. After a slang word has been used in speech for certain period of time, people get accustomed to it and it ceases to produce that shocking effect for the sake of which it has been originally coined. Some of them become the part of the literary vocabulary: doc “доктор”, movie “стрічка”, odd “дивний”.
Slang units nominate things, notions, different phenomena, alongside they render special pragmatic power, realize negative connotation, they are of expressive, emotional coloring. They are known for evaluation of non-literary units, in which denotation yields to connotation and connotation takes over denotation. These units are far from neutral and official style. Some of them sound rude and brutal because units are marked like ‘terms of abuse’, ‘terms of contempt”: dark ‘a fool’, scumbag “a descriptive person’.
70% of slangy units are pejorative and explicit on the morphological level: cheapo “дешевий”, dumbo “тупий”, nutso “божевільний”. The suffix –o is a borrowed element of negative connotation.
Slangy words are expressive synonyms of literary ones. The great bulk of synonyms refers to the most expressive and powerful paradigmatic group of sex, money and drugs. Thus the synonyms od paradigm 'drunk' embrace 220 units, that of money – 160 units. The heavy concentration of synonyms is relevant to vices and sins (murdery, drugs and prostitution). Especially attractive is Black English, 23% of non-literary units alongside with the new meanings keep the old ones, i.e. functioning polysemanticaly: ace "один доллар", "кращий друг", "рятівник", "чоловік, який надає перевагу яскравому одягу". The slangy units are made by means of word-building (58%) and semantic derivation (29,5%). The borrowings are not numerous (8,5%), nonce-units make only 4 per cent. One can witness a great productivity of composition (32,5%). The group of compounds is various in its juxtaposition. Colloquial vocabulary is distinguished by its variety of nuances. Colloquial words include all kidns of colouring and all parts of speech too. Some colloquial words have seemingly the same root as words in general use, cf.: marijuana – Mary, etc.
Linguists, characterizing the most conspicuous features of slang, point out that it requires continuous innovations. It never grows stale, it is replaced by new slang units. It is claimed that this sacrifies the natural desire for fresh, newly created expressions to the utterance, an emotional colouring and a subjective evaluation. Indeed, it seems to be in correspondence with the traditional point of view of English conservatism, that a special derogative form of term should have been coined to help preserve the "purity" of standard English by hindering the penetration into it of undsirable elements. The point is that the geterogeneous nature of the term serves as a kind of barrier, which checks the ntural influx of word coinage in polishing up the literary language. This can be proved by the progressive role played by any conscious effort to shift innovations, some of which are indeed to be unnecessary, even contaminating in the body of language.
Slangy words, as we see, acquire new meanings and these meanings are pejoratively declined. As we above stated slangy units become less expressive in their meaning. They are both expressive, emotional, fresh and negative. The negative meaning is kept both in words and their combinations. This should be kept in mind while translating.
Generally, neutral words from the standard language acquire notorious meaning: baby "любий/люба", "річ". "машина", "праця", "маріхуана". Standard words of negative meaning may become respected and acquire good meaning: bad "дужий", "міцний", "гарний".
Сf. man, that is really bad music. I got some new silks that are really bad.
Translation badly needs both linguistic and social competence on the part of translator. This group goes alongside with acronym types which flourish in the OL and acquire double attention in the process of translation.
Cf. Bilateral meeting "bilatt", catalytic converter "cat", fabrication plant "fab", magnetically elevated train "maglev", temporary worker "temp".
Euphemistic units are close to acronyms and sometimes go back to taboo words. They are used in newspapers, cf.: L – word for "ліберал", S – word for "соціалізм з негативним відтінком", О – word for "літня людина".
The tendency of euphony works with slangy word economical, which is more polite than deceitful. While translating the conotation of economical should be kept.
Cf. so was the prime Minister duilty of misleading her audience of being economical with the truth.
This is wide but nor universal agreement that the aim in the work of translator is to produce as nearly as possible the same effect on the reader of TT as had been produced on the reader of the OL. The principle id variously referred to as the principle of similar or equivalent response or effect of functional or dynamic equivalence. Facelessness of translation literature is often reasoned by the fear of vernacular (colloquial units), the main component of which is slang.
Translation gaps are caused not only by linguistic ambiguities, but also by misunderstanding of other cultures. That is why linguistic and social experience is badly needed to the comprehension of the semanic and pragmatic levels of the OT. Literary translation embraces all the peculiarities of substandard units of the SL (their semantic or structural properties) and requires additional equivalents in the TT. A translator who wants to be a professional should refuse from lieral translation of substandard lexical and phraseological units. Some effective measures can be taken and the needed information can be obviously given in the whole of the TT. While dealing with translation (and slang substandard units into that) a translator should mins both microtext (say, one sentence) and macrotext (say, the whole text). Expressive connotation of the OT should be in accordance with the expressive connotation of the TT.
Slangy words and phrases of the OL may be rendered both by standard and substandard words and phrases in the TL, by searate words of polylexical units – direct equivalents, functional equivalents (descriptive), partial equivalents, expressive means, enlargements and comments, lexaca, grammatical, stylistic transformation.
The analysis shows that people in this substandard language are called differently by using conventional units with the new charge: go-go "жінки-танцюристки", goldbrick "ледащо", gold digger "жінка-авантюристка, що цікавиться багатими чоловіками", gonso "дурень".
One should dicsriminate only the best, th newest, the cleverest slang units in appropriate places. Using slang we should be sure taht the idea couldn't be expressed better otherwise. We shouldn't overdo use of slang. Too much slang calls unnecessary attention to itself and obscures important ideas. The overuse of slang can also limit our vocabulary. Slangy expressions mushroom in a lnguage due to different reasons. Social status of substandard units differs from one language to another; in other words substandard phenomena of different levels are estimated differently by speakers. A translator shouls bear in mind that his translation shoul contribute to people understanding.


9.3 Students’ Talks on Translation

Olena Boka:
Oral translation or interpreting is very important in present life. We may speak on its functions for hours. But its main function is to make communication go,to overcome language barrier, to help people to understand each other. Interpreting makes radio, TV, films, conferences, culture available to us.
K. Chuckovsky in his book “Elevated art”asserted that:
Ø a perfect translation of fiction renders not only author’s thoughts and images, but also his style and creative individuality;
Ø the worst about bad translation is that it distorts the author’s vision;
Ø the writer’s personality is reflect in his style. The distortion of the style causes the distortion of his personality.

Olena Boka and Nataliya Prikhod’ko speak on bilinguism:
N: Good evening, Ms. Kirilova. Our prominent magazine “The people” is
happy to interview you. Would you mind sharing your experience with us?
L: …hat viele Aufschünge und Fölle. Und ich…
N: Wait a minute. I’m afraid neither cameraman nor I understand anything. Why German?
L: You know, Deutsch ist phantastisch!
N: I’m afraid we don’t understand you again. But I think your parents had great vitality and could bewitch everybody. You took after them vitality and now it eminates from you.
L: Danke schoen. Sie sind sehr nett.
N: I’m sorry, but…
L: Es ist sehr lustig.
N: Oh, thank you, very much. No more Deutsch… oh, I am sorry, German. Bilinguism is a nuance.

Olena Boka proceeds, speaking on discretion.
Of course there exits a lot of peculiarities, concerning translation and interpreting in general. But the most remarkable they call the discretion. This phenomenon is very interesting indeed. Discretion is one of the most precious qualities of an interpreter or a translator, let alone high skills and presence of mind. The essence of it is that an interpreter or a translator should keep secrets, be loyal for they take part in confidential discussions, and the delegates are to speak freely. The leakage won’t do.

Maryna Korostashovets focuses on court interpretation:
In Ukraine each foreigner, who has any connections with the court, has the right to have an interpreter to interprete a case (he/she may be a defendant, a witness). He is likely to give an adequate interpretation without any exaggerations and coloring, for any mistake may have a serious aftereffect.

Alyona Korolyova and Nataliya Taranushenko present a dialogue of Mr. Fox and Mr. Sorin (after M. Mitchel’s “Live With Lightning”)
F – Mr. Fox
S – Mr. Sorin
S: Mr. Fox. I’m sorry,
But wouldn’t it be for you so boring?
Could you tell me about your talk with Mr. Gorin?
F: Well, it was August and warm outside.
So I put everything on one side
I roamed unhappily about my soul.
But it was empty and so cold.
I was dreaming and for me it was rife.
To think about what had gone wrong with my life.
S: I’m sorry; maybe I’m so boring.
But, perhaps, you forget about Mr.Gorin.
F: I don’t forget. I told all this for you.
To fill the atmosphere of the interview.
All I wanted to be made to care again.
But my dreams disappeared when the interview began.
S: Mr. Fox, again, I’m sorry,
But let’s go back to Mr.Gorin.
F: Well, when my office door opened I saw a boy.
But he looked not like a cowboy.
He was slender and about twenty-one.
And then for a moment I forgot why he had come.
S: Maybe you don’t see my point,
Or your memory is out of joint.
F: Ah, Gorin. He was slender, above middle height.
And his clothes were not very good at first sight.
But he had dark living eyes and straight black hair.
I think such hair needs great care.
He was probably hungry, probably scared.
He wanted to set the world on fire, but I didn’t care.
Oh, it’s high time for m to go.
But before I go, I’d like to know.
Why, do you always say “sorry”.
S: It’s only because my name is Sorin.

Alyona Korolyova speaks on interpreters’ notations and cultural aspects of interpretation:
There exists a special short-handing for the interpreters which is called interpreters’ notations. It is based on the system of symbols and abbreviation – common and individual. These symbols and marks are used for decoding. Interpreters’ notations facilitate the work of an interpreter and help him to cope with his task.
An interpreter is a medium of cross-linguistic and cross-cultural cooperation. Cross-cultural training gains force in this country. It refers to academic courses. Cross-cultural attitudes are traced in grammatical discourse, sociolinguistic and strategic categories.
An interpreter should be in the know of the cultural aspect of a foreign country, because he often faces a lot of problems with cultural differences in source and target languages.

Qualities and qualifications of an interpreter seen by Ol’ga Zhulavs’ka:
An interpreter should neither be shy nor afraid of the public. Good education is a good beginning of his carrier. An intrerpreter should be able to speak on many topics, say, about the atomic energy, legal issues, statistics, finance etc.

Lyudmyla Milyutina enlarges on translation functions and self education:
Consecutive interpreting gives the possibilities to listen to the end until the original speaker stops. An interpreter has the time for analysis of the message, which makes his task easier.
Self-education is very important for everybody. Translating people share their knowledge, experience. Synchronists should be in the know not only of the languages but also of cultures.
Synchronous translation helps to master the native language, to command a foreign language, to widen cultural experience.
Sometimes a translator needs not only to translate foreign texts, but also to explain the meanings of some words, notions, and cultural peculiarities.
An interpreter is a medium of cross-linguistic and cross-cultural cooperation. A genuine translator must know a lot of different thing. He works with different people, and spheres of life. His own skills and knowledge help him. He must read a lot of books for communicating with interesting people, taking an active part in his country’s life, for knowing the latest news of politics and economics. In one word, if you want to be an interpreter, do your best your future career.
Interpreter should get information with a lightning speed and possess presence of mind. The main task of an interpreter is to understand the meaning of the speaker’s words, to render the information to the listeners.
One of the important interpreters’ qualities is to think quickly, to comprehend the real meaning.

Anna Glebova dwells on Ukrainian youth slang (translation aspects):
In different parts of Ukraine the slangy words develop variously. Slangy words, which come from the Russian language, may be used with the suffix -ов:
Cf.: бухалово “пиятика”; зависалово “довге гостювання без приводу”; винтилово “затримання міліцією”.
The borrowing from the Russian language бухалово is a derivative word from the verb бухати. There are other Ukrainian derivatives, such as: бухалівка, побухайлівка.
When an interlocutor is very angry he tries to express his emotional feelings with the help of non-standard vocabulary.
A lot of borrowings come through Russian language into Ukrainian from different languages.
Cf. Polish: шмотки “одяг”; шузи “черевики”; from the English language: ботл “пляшка”; ти крейзі “ти божевільний”; найтувати “ночувати”; олдовий “старий”; піпл “людина”, хоча в англ.“люди”); флет “квартира”, xaуз - вже застаріле). There are new borrowings: бусік “мікроавкобус”; байкер “мотоцикліст”; ганмен “озброєний охоронець”; дрінк “напій”; екстезі “синтетичний наркотик”; клок “годинник”; смел “сморід”; снікерс “кров’яна ковбаса”; тікет “квиток”; фак “вигук на позначення незадоволення”; from the German language : шпіляти “грати”; шпрехати “розмовляти”; from Arabic: кайф “задоволення”.
Slang vocabulary can be divided into different groups: army, computer, music, drug addict and students’ life.
Cf. drug addicts slang: косяк “цигарка з маріхуаною”, вмазатися “вколоти собі наркотик”; колеса “пiгулки”; ковбасити “давти наркотичний ефект”.
Computer slang: сейвонути “зберегти файл”; сайт “сторінка в інтернеті”; сетап “установка обладнання або програми”; вірус “программа, створена з метою ушкодження комп’ютера”; софта “програмне забезпечення”.
Vitaly Dorda and Pavlo Sadovs’ky demonstrate synchronous translation at work:
Tichonov passes the ball to the outside defender, the latter – to the inside forward, Robson. Robson’s taking up speed, he’s irresistible, approaching penalty area. Wow!!! What a dribbling – the defenders are down, one on one with the goalkeeper – big shoot – the ball gets into the past, one more shoot – crossbar, bicycle kick – Mamma mia! The ball is out. Yeah, it’s not your day, poor Spartak- player. Dynamo and Shakhtar are playing today.
Тихонов передає м’яч крайньому захиснику, той – центрфорварду Робсону. Робсон набирає швидкість, його вже не зупинити. Ось він уже у штрафній, який дриблінг!!! Захисники в панiці. Вихід один на один - удар – м’яч попадає в штангу, ще удар - поперечина, удар ножицями. Оце дає! – але м’яч летить вище воріт. Да, сьогодні не твій день, спартаковець. Сьогодні грають Динамо і Шахтар.
Vitaly asserts that translation does not only convey the meaning from one language into another, making a text sound naturally but also reflects the cultural aspect of the country; a translator is a medium of cross-cultural cooperation. Translating novels, short stories, essays, poetry serves arts. It requires much of creativeness, deep sense of art.
While oral translating, an interpreter may not catch or miss some information. In this case he may ask a speaker to remedy the situation. But he is reluctant to do that. The mistakes can be rectified later and the point of honor is to perform a high degree of accuracy. Hesitation won’t do, stammering isn’t good, a pause is not available as well as a cup of coffee. An interpreter is to understand what is said, and to be all ears. An orator may speak the language, which is not his mother tongue. The mistakes in his pronunciation and grammar are inevitable then. Nevertheless the message must be interpreted anyway.

Svitlana Mikhno admits that over the phone interpreting is a remote interpreting. It refers to services provided by telephone links and video links. Telecommunication is mostly simultaneous, eye contact is impossible.
Secular power function of interpreting crowns other functions. It deals with the way an interpreter behaves in society. He is supposed to be an affable, sociable and tactful person.
Reference difficulties make a great challenge. An interpreter is pressed for suitable words or equivalents, invents something new, that has not existed in language before. The UNO has set up a special department for interpreters, translators, reporters to provide them with special source documents.

Nadiya Koshkolda, Olena Popova and Mariya Sokruta present an example of community translation:
N: Good morning. Your passport, please.
O: Вибачте, я вас зовсім не розумію.
N: Oh, I see. We’ll call an interpreter then. Your passport, please.
M: Ваш паспорт, будь лaска.
O: Ось, тримайте.
M: Here you are.
N: Do you have anything to declare? Spirits, for example?
M: У вас є що-небудь для митної декларації? Спиртні напої?
О: Ні, я везу тільки подарунки для рідних.
M: No, I have only presents for my family.
N: Here are your documents. Have a nice trip.
M: Ось візьміть вашi документи. Щасливої дороги.

Nadiya states that there have always been disputes over the principles of biblical translation.
In 100 BC 72 learned Jews translated into Greek the Herbrew text of the Old Testament. Philo of Alexandria believed that they worked separately, and yet every one if them wrote the same, word for word. The translation of the Bible was considered to be a new revelation of God’s Word.
In the Middle Ages there existed the demand for “word for word” translation of the Bible. St. Jerome asserted that every translation should be made according to sense but the Bible should be translated word for word to preserve the unfathomable profundity of the sacred text. This principle has frequently been challenged. Kilaire Belloc advises a translator to change the style of the original into the corresponding mode of expression in terms of sense translation.

Mariya Sokruta says that the sound of our voice carries 36% of the message. Consider volume, tone and pace. The tone and volume shouldn’t be consistent either. One singles out the main words and idea. A speaker must consider the volume pace. You may make it slower or quicker when it is necessary. When your voice is constantly low, it is boring for the listener. And when you speak very quickly it’s impossible for interlocutors to understand the information. Developing affecting representation skills is a very important thing, it will help you in your career.

Nataliya Taranushenko mentions linguistic and social aspects of interpretation:
Interpretation as a process includes two aspects which are very effective — linguistic and social. Social aspects are various (cf. geography, history, culture). Each person has his own picture of the world, so-called language picture. An interpreter is a medium of cross-linguistic and cross-cultural cooperation.

Pavlo Sadovs’ky shares the opinion that an interpreter should be unnoticed:
If an interpreter is good at what he does, he tends not to be noticed. A good interpreter must not steal the show because the star of the show is a speaker and an interpreter, as they say, is a device, so he has to stay in shade.
As to the functions of written translation Pavlo says:
First of all, I want to say, that written translation is used from ancient times. From the early days of our history people wanted to receive the information of other communities. And at present it’s impossible to imagine our life without translated works of foreign authors. The functions of written translation are:
· First of all it’s a communicative function. Nearly all the translations are made to get people acquainted with people who speak other languages.
· Any language is informative. Translation brings people some information, which is closed for them because of the lan-guage barrier.
· Translation is the best way for cross-cultural communication.
· Translation helps people to develop their society using knowledge and inventions of other countries.

Pavlo also confirms that synchronous translation is a kind of interpretation when an interpreter speaks at the same time with a speaker (the gap is about 2-3 sec.). Synchronous interpretation is impossible without technical devices. So booths, headphones, microphones are available. Synchronous translation demands a great effort from an interpreter, because he is to listen to a speech in one language, to interpret it into another language, and not to fall behind the speaker. For the first time synchronous translation was used in 1928 in USSR at the International Congress. Nowadays it is used worldwide. The 6 common languages of international conferences are: English, French, Russian, Spanish, Chinese, Arabian.

Pavlo Sadovs’ky and Vitaly Dorda have an imaginary talk, based on
M. Mitchel’s “Live With Lightning”:
P: Hello-o-o! Anybody home? Come on, just open your mind! Hey man, I’m your future and now I’m going away… See, I’m going away…
V: (Knock. knock) Is anybody here? Mr. Fox, open your mind, it’s me. I’ll make your future happy.
P: Hey, who are you? And what are you doing here? I was the first so get out of here.
V: But I’m the idea of his family happiness. If he won’t remember that today’s his wife’s birthday, there’ll be a great storm at home! And…
P: Ha, don’t make me laugh! I’m the Idea of his second Nobel prize but he doesn’t open his mind even to me. So, don’t even try to get in. I know this look of his when he stares blindly out of the window. And there’s nothing in his head—not a single idea!
V: Oh, no, you are quite wrong! His head is empty like a baobab. When he stares at the switch on the interoffice telephone. And now his in mind is girls’ college which is beyond the window. And that scares me very much.
P: Hey, man, are you crazy? Your fortune is standing outside, and you’re thinking about girls! I can’t believe it! I…am… one of the greatest Ideas in the world. A lot of people dream to have such an idea, I chose him and what? He’s thinking about girls! I worked with Newton, Einstein… By the way, do you know the theory of probability? My work!
V: And I… and I… Ha!!! Do you remember the end of the cold war? My work! It was at one-on-one meeting between M. Gorbachev and J. Bush and it was me who prompted P. Palazchenko to say “Dear Mr. Gorbachev, I’m very pleased to see you” instead of “what is the bold pot-belly in my chair? Why is he smiling?… I’m scared. Let me get out of here…” You know, much was done not to spoil the flavor of the meeting!
P: Oh, don’t tell me, I do understand you! We spoil a lot of time and effort to help people and they close their mind and keep us outside to die with cold! Thankless job indeed! That’s enough I quit. Befriends?
V: Befriends! And I quit too… no I’d better take the vacation. You know, I want to store some more money to buy Porsche. I’m sick and tired of my Daewoo Espero… Ok, so what we gonna do? Celebrate?
P: Yeah, celebrate and let Mr. Fox enjoy his emptiness…

Kateryna Izmailova mentions typical mistakes in translation:
There are a lot of different mistakes which we make in our translation. And not only fresh interpreters or translators make them, but also the people with the great baggage of work and knowledge. It depends on the education of an interpreter, his basic knowledge. There are some words which present some difficulties in understanding:
Cf.: magazine—“журнал”, but not “магазин”, complexion—“колір обличчя”, but not “комплекція”, compositor—“набірник”, but not “композитор”.
Equipment for an interpreter is new, though translation is as old as an oak. There are the booths in which the synchronists are sitting and working. Booths are named after the target language. An interpreter works for 30 minutes with periods. The temperature in the booth must be appropriate, neither very cold nor very hot. An interpreter has the earphones, microphone and the decanter with water without ice. An interpreter should have a notebook and good pencils.

Galyna Vasil’kіvs’ka: The translation is one of the human activities known from the ancient times. It dates to the Biblical times or even earlier. Different tribes had to understand each other for trade or preventing war.
We know as much or as little of translation as our ancestors did. During almost all history the translation was outside the main sciences. But the 20th century brought a great number of innovations, there appeared many new states, international organizations, rapid growth of the science and technique.
So translators and interpreters were badly needed. But as an independent science the translation began its existence only in the 50s, when some scholars faced a task to make a model translation process, which differs from other types of language and literature activities.
Consecutive translation is a type of oral translation, when an interpreter begins translating after a speaker has stopped speaking, finished his speech or its part. The size of a translating part can vary from a single phrase or sentence to the whole text (20-30 minutes). During all this time there is a need to keep in memory nuts and bolts of the original before an interpreter begins to translate.
Dialogue between Mr. Putin & Pavel Palazchenko performed by Galyna Vasyl’kivs’ka and Kateryna Izmailova:
G – V. Putin
K - P. Palazchenko
Before summit
K: Mr. Putin, I beg you don’t use so many proverbs as you did last time. They are too ambiguous for the Americans, and sometimes they are imperfectly understood for Bush’s interpreter.
G: You ask me to change my speech? A great ship asks deep water.
K: Would you mind! I’ve just asked.
G: You are a hard nut to crack, Mr. Palazchenko. Don’t forget that this is your job. No cross, no crown.
K: I think we can never come to rapport.
G: Man proposes but God disposes. Give him an inch and he’ll take an ell. I thought that you would cringe as your predecessor. You seemed to be a quiet man. Still waters run deep.
K: Please don’t use so many proverbs. It must be a relaxed talk. If you don’t know I’ll tell you how to behave on such an occasion. It is necessary to give your interlocutor only nuts and bolts of your view. You are not a spy now. You don’t have too much time because there are a lot of things to do after the meeting.
G: What cannot be cured must be endured. He turned to be a wolf in sheep’s clothing. Wait a bit, well begun is half done.
(Within hours)
K: Mr. Putin, I give you a dramatic proposal. If you utter another proverb I’ll tell my wife to forbid you to go in for dzu-do. And good health is above wealth.
G: Promise little but do much. Anyway it is not worth mentioning. I hate those smart Alecs who made me create such an image. What done cannot be undone.
K: Like water of a duck’s back. But he laughs best who laughs last.

Tetyana Mayboroda is of the opinion that humor is a thinking category, specifically represented in an original text. For a foreigner it is very difficult to comprehend humor which is a cultural category. Moreover, limited thesaurus of a person does not allow him to understand humor of his native language. That is why a translator should be a highly educated person and have broad thesaurus, possess basic knowledge.
Humor arouses amusement, laughter (the capacity of recognizing, reacting to or expressing something, which is amusing, funny). Humor is a means of cheerful, puzzling, funny attitude towards reality.
Cf. jokes:
1. he—“have you been up before the Dean?”
she—“Oh, I don’t know. What time does he get up?”

2. 1st lady—“ My husband wired me from Paris on my birthday asking whether he should buy me a Rembrandt or a Titian. Now which would you have?”
2nd lady—“Well as far as that goes, any of those French cars are pretty good”

3. –Mamma, do pigs have babies?
--Why of course, dear.
--Someone told me they had little pigs.

4. A notice was put up on the door of an office: “If you haven’t anything to Do, Don’t Do it Here!”

5. She—you remind me of the ocean.
He—wild, romantic and restless?
She—No, you just make me sick.

6. A riddle: What makes more noise than a pig in a sty? (2 pigs).

















LIST OF SOME CONFUSING WORDS
September вересень
March березень
June червень
July липень
October жовтень
November листопад
West захід
East схід
North північ
South південь
Swiss щвейцарський
Swedish шведський
Dutch голландський
Danish датський
prospect перспектива (на майбутнє)
perspective 1) оптична перспектива (напр.,
у фотографії)
2) точка зору, погляд
centrifugal відцентрований (рос. центробежный)
centripetal доцентрований (рос.
центростремительный)
concave випуклий, опуклий
convex увігнутий
fission розщіплення, ділення (ядра атома)
fusion синтез (ядерний); злиття
decrease/reduce знижувати, зменшувати
increase підвищувати, збільшувати
constraints перешкода, “гальмуючий фактор”
incentives стимул, заохочення



ABBREVIATIONS

ACE – Allied Command Europe (NATO) – Головне командування об’єднаними збройними силами у Європі (НАТО)
ADR – American depositary receipt – американська депозитарна розписка (вид цінних паперів США)
APC – armoured personell carrier - БТР – бронетранспортер
CAC 40 – індекс фондової біржи у Паризі (Франція)
CEE – Central and East European countries – країни Центральної та Східної Європи
CD – compacrt disc – компакт-диск, лазерний текст, оптичний диск, часто “CD”
CJTF – combined joint task force (NATO) – об’єднане оперативно-тактичне угрупування (НАТО)
CIS – Commonwealth of Independent States – СНД - співдружність незалежних країн
DAX – індекс фондової біржи у Франкфурті (Німеччина)
EAPC – Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (NATO) – Рада Євро-атлантичного партнерства (НАТО)
EBRD – European Bank for Reconstruction and Development – Європейський банк реконструкції та розвитку
EMU – Eyropean Monetary Union – Європейський монетарний (фінансовий) союз
EU – European Union – Європейський союз
FSU – former Soviet Union states – держави колишнього СРСР
FSTE – Financial Times Stock Exchange (index) (UK) – індекс фондової біржи у Лондоні (Великобританія)
GATT – General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – ГАТТ – Генеральна угода з тарифів та торгівлі
GDP – gross domestic product – валовий внутрішній продукт
GNP – gross national product – валовий національний продукт
H.M.S. – Her Majesty’s Ship – корабель військово-морських сил Великобританії
IBRD – International Bank for reconstruction and Development – МБРР – Міжнародний банк реконструкції та розвитку
IDR – involuntary displaced person – особа, яка була переміщена проти своєї волі (рос. насильственно перемещенное лицо)
IFOR – Implementation force (NATO) – сили втілення миру (НАТО)
ILO - International Labour Organisation – Мфжнародна оганізація праці
IMF – International Monetary Fund – МВФ - міжнародний валютний фонд
IOSCO – International Organisation of Securities Commissions – Міжнародна організація комісій з цінних паперів
ISO - International Standartisation Organisation – ІСО – Міжнародна організація по стандартизації
IPP – Individual Partnership Programme (NATO) – програма індивідуального партнерства (НАТО)
LIFFE – London International Financial Futures and Option Exchange – Лондонська міжнародна біржа фінансових ф’ючерсів та опционів
MEP – member of European Parliament – член європейського парламенту
M-f-n treatment – most favoured nation treatment – режим найбільшого сприяння
NAA – North Atlantic Assembly (NATO) – Північноатлантична Асамблея (НАТО)
NACC – North Atlantic Co-operation Council (NATO) – РПАС – Рада північноатлантичного співробітництва (НАТО)
NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement – Північноамериканська угода про вільну торгівлю
NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA) – НАСА – Національне управління з аеронавтики та дослідженню космічного простору (США)
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organisation – НАТО – організація Північноатлантичного договору, Північноатлантичний союз
NAV – net asset value – вартість чистих активів (рос. Стоимость чистых активов, СЧА)
NGO – non-government organisation – неурядова організація
NIKKEI – індекс фондової біржи у Токіо, Японія
NIS – newly independent states – нові незалежні держави (держави колишнього радянського блоку)
NPT – Non-proliferation Treaty – договір про нерозповсюдження ядерної зброї
NASDAQ – National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations – НАСДАК – система автоматичного котування цінних паперів Національної асоціації біржевих ділерів (США)
NYSE – New-York Stock Exchange – Нью-Йоркська фондова біржа
OSCE – Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe – ОБСЄ – організація з безпеки та співробітництва в Європі
OECD – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – Організація економічного співробітництва та розвитку
OHP – overhead projector – проектор типу “кодоскоп”
OTC – over-the-counter trade – позабіржова торгівля цінними паперами
PABSEC – Parliamentary Assembly of the Black Sea Economic Co-operation – ПАЧЕС – Парламентська асамблея чорноморського економічного співробітництва
PARP – plan and review process (NATO) – процес планування та перегляду (НАТО)
PCA – Partnership and Co-operation Agreement (NATO) – Угода про партнерство та співробітництво (НАТО)
PCC – Partnership Co-ordination Cell (NATO) – Група з координації партнерства (НАТО)
PIF – privatisation investment fund – приватизаційний інвестиційний фонд
PFP- Partnership for Peace (NATO) – ПЗМ – “Партнерство заради миру” (програма партнерства країн НАТО)
PLC – Public Limited Company (UK) – публічна компанія з обмеженою відповідальністю; відкрите акціонерне товариство, ВАТ
POW – prisoner of war – військовополонений
R & D – research and development – науково-дослідниціка робота та дослідницікі розробки
SAE – stamped and addressed envelope – конверт з маркою та адресою
SACEUR – Supreme Allied Commander Europe (NATO) – Верховний головнокомандувач об’єднаними збройними силами НАТО у Європі
SHAPE – Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (NATO) – Штаб Верховного головнокомандувача об’єднаними збройними силами НАТО у Європі (м. Монс, Бельгія)
SRO – self-regulatory organisation – організація, що саморе-гулюється; саморегулююча організація
SWIFT – Socety for World-wide Interbank Financial Telecommunications – СВІФТ – міжнародна міжбанківська система електронних платежів
SWOT – strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (analysis) – сильні та слабкі сторони; можливості та загрози (тип аналітичного дослідження діяльності організацій, компаній, тощо)
TACIS – Technical Aids to CIS – ТАСІС – європейська програма допомоги та співробітництва з країнами СНД
T & D – training and development – підготовка, перепідготовка та підвищення кваліфікації кадрів
T-BILL – treasury bills – ОВДП – облігації внутрішньої державної позики (рос. - ОВГЗ)
UNHCR – United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees – Верховний комісар ООН у справах біженців
UNO – United Nations Organisation – Організація об’єднаних націй
US CSSE – United States Commission on Securities and Stock Exchange – Комісія з цінних паперів та фондової біржі США
VAT – value added tax – ПДВ – податок на додану вартість (рос. НДС)
USS – United States Ship – корабель військово-морських сил США
WB – World Bank – Світовий банк
WEU – West European Union – Західноєвропейський союз
WHO – World Health Organisation – Всесвітня організація охорони здоров’я (рос. ВОЗ)
WTO – World Trade Organisation – Міжнародна організація торгівлі ООН (рос. МОТ)
WWW – World-wide Web – “всесвітнє павутиння” (одна з назв електронної комп’ютерної системи Інтернет)




























BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Бархударов Л. Язык и перевод. – М.: Международные отношения. - 1975.
2. Вейзе А.А. и др. Перевод технической литературы с английского на русский. - Минск: Киреев, 1997. – 111с.
3. Воробьева О. Текстовые категории и фактор адресата. – К.: Вища школа. - 1993.
4. Егорова Л.М. Теория и практика перевода (экономических текстов с английского языка на русский). – М.: Междунар. отношения, 1974. – 190 с.
5. Журавлева С.И. Реализация вопросительности как супрасинтаксического элемента в нетипичных текстах // Дис. … канд. филол. наук. – К., 1998.
6. Зорівчак Р.П. Реалія і переклад. – Львів, 1989.
7. Зорівчак Р.П. Художній переклад в Україні як чинник формування нації // Мови, культури та переклад у контексті Європейського співробітництва: Збірка наукових праць. – Київ, 2001. - С. 123 - 132.
8. Карабан В.І. Посібник-довідник з перекладу англ. наукової технічної літератури на укр. мову. Част. І (Грам. труднощі). – Київ: Політична думка, 1997. – 300 с.
9. Кайцер Ю., Кунин А. Письменный перевод с русского языка на английский. – М.: Высшая школа, 1964. – 405 с.
10. Климзо Б.И. Перевод патентов. – М.: МГПИИЯ им. М.Тореза, 1976. – 216 c.
11. Кобякова И.К. Особенности реализация лингвокреативной функции в английских текстах малого жанра… Дис. канд. филол. наук. – К., 1996.
12. Кобякова І.К. Переклад іронії // Мови, культури та переклад у контексті Європейського співробітництва: Збірка наукових праць. – Київ, 2001. - С. 158 - 161.
13. Комиссаров В. Теория перевода. - М.: Высшая школа.-1990.
14. Кухаренко В. Интерпретация текста. – М.: Просвещение.-1983.
15. Максимов С.Є., Радченко Т.О. Перекладацький аналіз тексту (англійська та українська мови). – Київ, 2001.
16. Манганарас С. Природний переклад, підготовка перекладачів та проблеми перекладу в Європі (одна проблема, два вирішен- ня) // Мови, культури та переклад у контексті Європейського співробітництва: Збірка наукових праць. – Київ, 2001. - С. 261 - 265.
17. Методологічні проблеми перекладу на сучасному етапі: Збірка наукових праць – Суми: Вид-во СумДУ, 1999. – 194 с.
18. Миньяр-Белоручев Р.К. Теория и методы перевода. – М.: Московский лицей, 1996. – 208 с.
19. Мірошниченко В.В. Нові тенденції в сучасному перекладознавстві // Мови, культури та переклад у контексті Європейського співробітництва: Збірка наукових праць. – Київ, 2001. - С. 393 - 397.
20. Науменко А.М. Концепція оригіналу і перекладу // Мови, культури та переклад у контексті Європейського співробітництва: Збірка наукових праць. – Київ, 2001. - С. 314-318.
21. Новикова М.О. Крос-культура та перекладознавчі дослідження // Мови, культури та переклад у контексті європейського співробітництва: Збірка наукових праць. – Київ, 2001. - С. 321-323.
22. Олікова М.О. Теорія і практика перекладу. – Луцьк, 2000.
23. Палажченко П. Все находится в сравнении или несистемный словарь трудностей, тонкостей и премудростей английского языка в сопоставлении с русским. – М.: Валент, 1999. – 236 с.
24. Петренко К., Чужакин А. Transcript to Audio Course. “Top translators talk on tape”. – M.: “Р. Валент”, 1999. – 63 c.
25. Почепцов Г. Коммуникативная семантика. – М.: Высшая школа.- 1986.
26. Почепцов О. Языковая ментальность: способ представления мира // Вопросы языкознания. - 1990. - №6. – С.110-112.
27. Пумпянский А.Л. Упражнения по переводу научной и технической литературы. – М.: Наука, 1966. – 296 с.
28. Радчук В.Д. Багатослівність перекладача і глобалізація лінгвосфери // Мови, культури та переклад у контексті Європейського співробітництва: Збірка наукових праць. – Київ, 2001. - С. 392 - 397.
29. Рецкер Я.И. Теория перевода и переводческая практика. – М.: Междунар. отношения. - 216 с.
30. Семенец О.Е. и др, Практический курс устного перевода. – Киев: Вища школа, 1989. – 173 с.
31. Флорин С. и др. Муки переводческие. – М.: Высшая школа, 1983. – 186 с.
32. Чередниченко О.І. Міжкультурні аспекти перекладу // Мови, культури та переклад у контексті Європейського співробітництва: Збірка наукових праць. – Київ, 2001. - С. 485 - 489.
33. Чередниченко О.І. Мови і переклад на сучасному етапі // Мови, культури та переклад у контексті Європейського співробітництва: Збірка наукових праць. – Київ, 2001. - С.3-7.
34. Чернов Г.В. Основы синхронного перевода. – М.: Высшая школа, 1987. – 256 с.
35. Чужакин А. Устный перевод – ХХI: теория + практика + переводческая скоропись: Учебник для студентов переводческих факультетов. – М., 2001. - 255 с.
36. Швачко С.О. Методичні вказівки з синхронного перекладу. – Суми, 2000.
37. Швачко С.О. Переклад як навчальна дисципліна // Вісник Сумського державного університету . Серія. Філологічні науки.- Суми: Вид-во СумДУ, 2001. - №5(26). - С. 120 - 125.
38. Швачко С.О. Перекладацькі аспекти у вузі та школі // Зошит перекладача №4. – Суми: СумДУ, 1999. – 28 с.
39. Швачко С. Сутність мовотворчої функції // Вісник Харківського університету,1998.
40. Швейцер А.Д. Теория перевода. Статус, проблема, аспек- ты. – М.: Наука, 1988. – 215 с.
41. Bearwood L A First Course in Technical English. – Heinemann 1979. – 140 p.

42. Grice H.P. Logic and Conversation. – New York, 1975.
43. Belova S.V. The Book of American Humor 20-th Century. Moskva: Raduga. – 1984.
44. Hornby A.S. Advanced Learners Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. – 1982.
45. Korunetz I.V. A Course in the Theory and Practice of Translation. Kiev: Vyscha Schkola. – 1986.
46. Krzeszowski J.P. Prototypes and Equivalence. In Papers and Studies in Constructive Linguistics. Poznan: PUP, 1986. – Р. 5-20.
47. Levenson A.J. The Book of English Humour. Moskva: Raduga. – 1990.
48. Maksimov S.E. Translation as Intercultural Communication // ATEEL Ukraine Newsletter, N1 May 1995. – Р. 16-18.
49. Manser M.H. Dictionary of contemporary Idioms. London: Pan Books. – 1983.
50. Miram G. Translation Algorithms. – Kyiv, 1998.
51. Marton W. Equivalence and Congruence in Transformational Contrastive Studies. SAP, 1968. – Р. 53-62.
52. Nickel G. Paper in Contrastive Linguistics. Cambridge University Press. – 1971.
53. Oleksey W. Towards Pragmatic Contrastive Analysis. Fisiak, 1984. - Р. 349-364.
54. Pocheptsov G.G. Language and Humor. – K.,1983.
55. Rebrig O. Interlingua Interpreter’s Shorthand Course. – Харків, 1999.
56. Rosh E. Human Categorization. Warren, 1977. - 1-49.
57. Rosh E. Natural Categories. Cognitive Psychology 4, 1973. – Р. 328-350.
58. Rosh E. Principles of Categorization. Rosh & Lloyd. – 1978.
59. Rosh & Lloyd. Cognition and Categorization. Hillsdale, N.J. – 1978.
60. Shvachko S. Prototypical equivalence in English-Ukrainian translation // The USSR Messenger, 2000 (1). - Р. 94-100.
61. Shvachko S.O., Zolotaryev I.I. Substandard English via Translation // Mови, культури та переклад у контексті європейського співробітництва // Збірка наукових праць – Київ, 2001.
62. Warren N. Stidies in Cross-cultural Psychology. London: Academic Press. – 1977.
63. Wittgenstein L. Psychological Investigation. New York: Macmillan. – 1953.